Category History Timelines

Hyperinflation and Weimar Germany
History Timelines

Hyperinflation and Weimar Germany

Hyperinflation and Weimar Germany Weimar Germany had greeted with total horror the financial punishment of Versailles. If Germany had paid off the sum of £6,600,000,000, she would have remained in debt to the Allies until 1987 !! However, by signing the Treaty of Versailles, she had agreed in principle to the issue of reparations and in 1921, Germany just about managed to pay its first installment of 2 billion gold marks.

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Positions of responsibility in a monastery

Monks who demonstrated their ability within a monastery were given positions of responsibility to ensure that the monastery itself ran smoothly. Such positions were created so that various parts of a monastery operated to the greatest efficiency - such as in the kitchens, the guest house, the infirmary etc.
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The organisation within a monastery

Medieval monasteries were a major development from the tiny, hermit-like isolated homes that some monks had lived in prior to Medieval England. Gradually monks started to live in small communities as each shared the same beliefs and values. Monasteries developed as a result and they were to include a church, refectory, toilets, running water etc.
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The Cornish Rebellion of 1497

Like the uprising in Yorkshire in 1489, the 1497 rebellion in Cornwall was based around a tax demand. In January 1497, Parliament voted for a tax to finance the campaign against James IV and Perkin Warbeck. The Cornish refused to contribute to a tax that was to pay for a campaign in the north and which, to them, had no impact on Cornwall.
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Henry VII and Retaining

One of the major issues that Henry VII had to deal with was retaining. Retaining was a problem that had haunted kings for some time and was sometimes referred to as livery or maintenance. Livery was the giving of a uniform or badge to a follower and maintenance was the protection of a retainer's interests.
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Henry VII and Parliament

For Henry VII to have control over government he had to have control over Parliament. At this time Parliament only met to grant taxes and to pass laws. It was in the latter role that Henry VII had a need to control Parliament if he was to become as powerful as he felt a king should be. Henry had already shown the nobility that loyalty to him would be rewarded.
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Henry VII and Ordinary Revenue

For Henry VII, ordinary revenue consisted of income from crown lands, custom duties, feudal dues and profits of justice. Ordinary revenue was collected annually and was seen as a king's right. Henry VII particularly targeted revenue from crown lands as if the income from them was maximised, it represented a considerable percentage of Henry's annual income.
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Henry VIII and the nobility

Henry VIII is usually viewed as a powerful king who was all but unopposed in government. However, Henry himself was always concerned that at some point a rival to the throne might appear. Henry was aware that Henry VII had won the throne after the Battle of Bosworth and that his claim to the throne was not beyond dispute.
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Catherine Parr

Catherine Parr was born around 1512. She was Henry VIII's sixth and final wife. Catherine had already been married to a man called Lord Borough. She was in her teens and he was in his sixties when they married. Lord Borough soon died but Catherine soon re-married to a man called Lord Latimer. He was a frequent visitor to the royal court and Henry soon took note of Lady Latimer - Catherine.
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Catherine Howard

Catherine Howard was born into one of the most famous of noble families - Catherine's father was the younger brother of the Duke of Norfolk. Catherine became Henry VIII's fifth wife. She was Anne Boleyn's cousin and in the social circle in which she lived, it would have been expected that she would have been seen by Henry, who after the divorce from Anne of Cleves, was once again looking for a wife.
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The Concept of Imperium

The movement from the divorce of Catherine of Aragon to the full-blown Reformation had numerous causes. One of these was the belief in the concept of imperium. This was the belief that England was a fully sovereign entity that was independent from Rome and, in fact, all forms of foreign governments. Therefore, the king had no allegiance or loyalty to any foreigner including the Pope.
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The death of Prince Arthur

The unexpected death of Prince Arthur threw the plans of Henry VII into disarray. Henry VII wanted a strong bond with Spain so that France would feel surrounded by two potential enemies. This, Henry believed, would stop France helping claimants to the throne such as Perkin Warbeck. Opponents to the Tudors had gathered in Paris to plan their next course of action and Henry wanted to put a stop to this by 'leaning' on the French monarchy.
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John Fisher

John Fisher was an opponent of the Reformation in the reign of Henry VIII. John Fisher was a highly placed member of the Catholic Church in England and was to pay for his beliefs with his life. Fisher was born probably in 1469. He was the son of a merchant and would have had a comfortable upbringing.
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Cardinal Wolsey and Government

Cardinal Wolsey was Henry VIII's chief minister for fifteen years. During this time Wolsey seemed to be more concerned about developing his wealth as opposed to ensuring that the country had effective government in place. If Wolsey concerned himself with government reform, there was little opportunity for him to expand his authority, personal power and income.
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Hugh Latimer

Hugh Latimer was an early English Protestant leader in the same mould as Thomas Cranmer. Like Cranmer, Latimer was also to be executed for his religious beliefs in the reign of Mary I. Hugh Latimer is thought to have been born in 1485. From 1506 on he was educated at Cambridge University. He joined the likes of Cranmer at the White Horse Tavern where issues on the Lutheran faith were discussed.
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The Break with Rome

Having broken the back of the Church in England and Wales, Henry VIII turned on the Pope and Papal power. To some this would have been a natural move as it had been Clement VII who had refused to sanction an annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. It could be argued that Clement's refusal to give in to Henry sparked off a series of events that ended with the Pope's power being removed from the land later in the century.
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The Fall of Seymour

Edward Seymour, Earl of Somerset appeared to have everything handed to him to become England's most powerful nobleman during the reign of Edward VI. While a cohort of men had been chosen by the ailing Henry VIII to act as guardians to the boy king, I quickly became clear that on the accession of Edward, Somerset was the leader of this Privy Council.
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The Church 1553 to 1558

The religious turmoil that England and Wales had experienced since the late 1520's continued after the death of Edward VI. By Edward's death, England had a Church of England that was very recognisable as being Protestant. Whether Luther inspired it or Calvin was a separate issue but all vestiges of Catholicism has been removed.
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Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon was born in 1485 and died in 1536. Catherine was born in Aragon, Spain and her parents were King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castille. She was Henry VIII's first wife and was divorced so that Henry could marry Anne Boleyn. Spain and England had a history of poor diplomatic relations and it was common in the Fifteenth Century (and others) for members of a royal family to marry off a daughter or son to a child from another royal family to establish better relations between those two countries.
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Henry VIII and Scotland

Scotland remained a source of potential trouble for Henry VIII for the duration of his reign. The fact that Scotland shared a common border with England was enough to make Henry very wary of his northern neighbour - especially as Scotland usually had decent relations with France. Henry did fear that France would use Scotland as a springboard for an invasion.
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The Wyatt Rebellion of 1554

The fear of England becoming re-Catholicised combined with the proposed marriage between Mary and Philip of Spain, led to the Wyatt Rebellion of 1554. This was a rebellion led by nobles - principally Sir Thomas Wyatt from Kent, Sir Peter Carew from Devon, Sir James Croft from Herefordshire and the Duke of Suffolk from Leicestershire.
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