Hamburg was bombed in July 1943. According to JosephGoebbels, Nazi Minister for Propaganda, the bombing of Hamburg was the first time that he thought Nazi Germany might have to call for peace. The bombing of German cities, spearheaded by 'BomberHarris' and the men from Bomber Command, remains a controversial topic and the bombing of Dresden in 1945 is frequently recounted.
Category Course of History
Background to World War One Causes of World War One Germany and Militarism The First Moroccan Crisis Theophile Delcasse Bernhard von Bulow Friedrich von Holstein The Algeciras Conference of 1906 The Agadir Crisis of 1911 The Bosnian Crisis Balance of Power in 1914 The Schlieffen Plan Count Alfred von Schlieffen The Naval Race 1906 to 1914 Assassination at Sarajevo The Black Hand Movement The British Declaration of War Defence of the Realm Act of 1914
Sinking of HMS Royal Oak Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of the River Plate The Graf Spee in Montevideo U-boats The U-boat war 1940 Otto Kretschmer Arctic Convoys The Battle of Barents Sea The Bismarck HMS Hood The Tirpitz The 1942 raid on St. Nazaire Stephen Beattie VC HMS Campbeltown
Blitzkrieg The Attack on Poland The Winter War 1939 Russia Operation Barbarossa Memories of Operation Barbarossa The Siege of Leningrad The Battle for Moscow Operation Blue The Kharkov Offensive 1942 Siege of Sebastopol Not One Step Back - Order 227 The Battle of Stalingrad The Battle of Kursk Lidice 1942 The Katyn Wood Massacre The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 The July Bomb Plot Operation Caesar Berlin April 1945 The Battle for Berlin The Death of Adolf Hitler The Will of Adolf Hitler The Final Political Testament of Adolf Hitler Operation Eclipse Major Tony Hibbert The Surrender of Nazi Germany The Act of Military Surrender
Special Air Service David Stirling Long Range Desert Group Ralph Bagnold Small Scale Raiding Force The Bruneval Raid Royal Marines Commandos The Cockleshell Heroes of 1942 Cockleshell Canoes US Rangers US Ranger Creed Weapons of the US Marines Merrill's Marauders US Marine Raiders The Commando Order Waffen SS
China in 1900 The Boxer Rebellion Sun Yat Chiang Kai Mao Zedong The Red Army The Long March 1934 to 1935 The Japan-China War The Civil War in China 1945 to 1949 China 1949 to 1953 China and the First Five Year Plan The Great Leap Forward The Cultural Revolution
Spitfire Hurricane Lysander Boulton-Paul Defiant Mosquito Swordfish P51 Mustang Grumman F6F Hellcat Lancaster P-38 Lightning B17 Flying Fortress B29 Superfortress Messerschmitt 109 Messerschmitt 110 Messerschmitt 262 Heinkel III Junkers 87 Junkers 88 Dornier Do 17 Churchill tank Sherman DD Duplex Tiger tank T34 tank Machine Guns HMS Hood U-boats The Bismarck The Tirpitz USS Lexington V1 V2 Atomic Bomb Rocket development Hawker Typhoon Bristol Beaufighter Sea Hurricane
Italy in 1900 Italy and World War One The March on Rome Benito Mussolini Mussolini's Dictatorship The Murder of Matteotti Life in Fascist Italy The Economy in Fascist Italy Mussolini and the Roman Catholic Church Abyssinia Italy's foreign policy Italy and Germany 1936 to 1940
Research Issues and Factors Types of Research Ways To Research Research Research Topics Longitudinal Studies Structured Interviews Unstructured Interviews Feminism and Unstructured Interviews Structured Questionnaires Unstructured Questionnaires Participant Observation Positivism Anti Positivism Labelling Official Statistics Sampling Secondary Sources Census Mass Media Media Content Analysis
Feudal Services Feudalism and feudal services dominated the life of a medieval peasant. The whole social structure of Medieval England was based around feudalism which essentially gave a lot to the lords of the manor with seemingly nothing being given to the peasants in return. Feudal services and the whole concept of feudalism kept the peasant poor.
Queen Boudica and her army gave the Romans a major challenge. In AD 60, Boudica led an uprising against the Romans. Boudica was the queen of the Iceni tribe who lived in what is now East Anglia. What caused this major rebellion? When Boudica's husband,Prasutagus, died, he left his territory to the Romans and to his two daughters.
Why do people commit crime? Who Commits Crime? Criminals and Criminal Offences Drugs and Crime Crime and the Sex Trade Ethnicity and Crime Macpherson Report Police and Ethnic Minorities Women and Crime Feminism and Crime Gender Bias and Punishment Juveniles and Crime Social Groups and Crime Crime and Globalisation Environmental Crimes Immigration and Crime Identity Fraud State Crimes Human Rights Extraordinary Rendition Michel Foucault The Labelling Theory Participant Observation and Crime Deviance Phenomenology and Deviance Official Statistics and Crime The Criminal Justice System How the Criminal Justice System works How does justice work?
Heraldry had and has very specific rules as to how a coat of arms is made up. The most basic part of a coat of arms was the achievement. An achievement in terms of heraldry and a coat of arms was the complete display of arms, crests and accessories. An achievement was made up of eight parts and there were very specific rules as to what colours could be used in a heraldic device.
Medieval England experienced few revolts but the most serious was the Peasants' Revolt which took place in June 1381. A violent system of punishments for offenders was usually enough to put off peasants from causing trouble. Most areas in England also had castles in which soldiers were garrisoned, and these were usually enough to guarantee reasonable behaviour among medieval peasants.
The Domesday Book is one of Medieval England's greatest treasures. The Domesday Book is closely linked with William the Conqueror's attempt to dominate Medieval England. Along with a string of castles throughout England, the Domesday Book was to give William huge authority in England. To further extend his grip on England, William I ordered that a book be made containing information on who owned what throughout the country.
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was killed in December 1170. Becket's death remains one of the most famous stories associated with Medieval England. In Medieval England the Church was all powerful. The fear of going to Hell was very real and people were told that only the Catholic Church could save your soul so that you could go to Heaven.
Medieval manor houses were owned by Medieval England's wealthy - those who were at or near the top of the feudal system. Few original Medieval manor houses still exist as many manor houses were built onto over the next centuries. For this reason, you have to look at Tudor and Stuart manors to find where Medieval architecture existed and where it was 'improved'.
Content Studies at Medieval Oxford and Cambridge Universities was based around what was studied at Paris University. Many tutors and students had attended Paris University and it was only natural that the subjects studied there and the teaching techniques would be copied. As an example, Paris held what was known as a Lenten Determination.