Group 13 of Fighter Command was formed to protect the north of England and Scotland. Group 13 also provided bases for pilots from Groups 11 and 12 to rest and recuperate before returning to duties in Southern England again. Group 13 had its headquarters at the Blakelaw Estate in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and its commanding officer during the Battle of Britain was Air Vice-Marshal Richard Saul.
The Phoney War The Attack on Western Europe Operation Cerberus Operation Catapult Operation Sealion Britain's Home Front in World War Two Battle of Britain France during World War Two D-Day Index The Normandy Campaign The Battle for Brittany Operation Anvil Operation Dragoon The V Revenge Weapons Operation Crossbow Arnhem The Battle of the Bulge Antwerp and World War Two Operation Unthinkable VE Day Code Breaking at Bletchley Park
The McMahon Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 The Balfour Declaration of 1917 Palestine 1918 to 1948 Palestine and the League of Nations The Jewish Agency Haganah The Middle East and the United Nations The Bombing of the King David Hotel Israel and the 1948 War David Ben-Gurion Gamal Abdel Nasser The Six Day War The Palestinian Liberation Organisation Golda Meir Moshe Dayan The Yom Kippur War of 1973 Anwar al Sadat The Sadat Initiative Menachem Begin and Israel Moshe Landau
First World War Casualties Commonwealth Casualty Figures Commonwealth War Graves Commission Fromelles Military Cemetery The Menin Gate Last Post Association Essex Farm Cemetery Tyne Cot Cemetery Langemark War Cemetery World War One Cemeteries Royal British Legion Tomb of the Unknown Warrior
Religion played a very important role in the daily life of Ancient Rome and the Romans. Roman religion was centred around gods and explanations for events usually involved the gods in some way or another. The Romans believed that gods controlled their lives and, as a result, spent a great deal of their time worshipping them.
Ancient Rome was the largest city in the then known world. It is thought that Rome's population was over 1 million people when the city was at the height of its power. From Rome, the heart of government beat; military decisions were taken and the vast wealth Rome earned was invested in a series of magnificent buildings.
After the success of the Normans in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, they sought to impose Norman rule throughout England and Wales. One way of demonstrating Norman supremacy over the conquered English was to impose their own names on places that had English names or variants from the Celts etc. For such a warlike people, one of the reasons the Normans changed some place names was a simple dislike for a name that they considered unpleasant.
The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France. The background of the Hundred Years War went as far back as to the reign of William the Conqueror. When William the Conqueror became king in 1066 after his victory at the Battle of Hastings, he united England with Normandy in France.
Canterbury Cathedral was one of the most important centres of pilgrimage in Medieval England. There has been a cathedral at Canterbury since 597 when St. Augustine baptised the Saxon king Ethelbert. The Archbishop of Canterbury was the most senior religious figure in the land and he was based at the cathedral.
Medieval England was not a comfortable place for most women. Medieval women invariably had a hard time in an era when many men lived harsh lives. A few women lived comfortable lives but Medieval society was completely dominated by men and women had to know 'their place' in such a society. A woman milking a cow Medieval society would have been very traditional.
Heraldry and medieval towns were very much linked as towns and cities used heraldic devices to express characteristics associated with them. Some heraldic shields show the story associated with that town - such as Colchester, Stepney and Bury St. Edmunds. The earlier heraldic devices for more ancient towns wanted to link themselves to the king to demonstrate their loyalty.
Architecture played a very important role for the church in Medieval England. The more splendid the architecture, the more the church believed it was praising God. The church in Medieval England poured vast sums of money into the creation of grandiose architectural projects that peaked in the cathedrals at Canterbury and York.
The English universities were one of the most significant creations of Medieval England. The scholars who attended either Oxford or Cambridge Universities set an intellectual standard that contrasted markedly with the norm of Medieval England. Oxford University came into being some 20 years before Cambridge University.