History Podcasts

Tomb of St. Gregory of Tatev

Tomb of St. Gregory of Tatev


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Why St. Gregory’s University Is Closing Its Doors

On November 8, 2017, St. Gregory’s University in Shawnee, Oklahoma, announced to student, staff, and the media that it would “suspend operations” indefinitely at the close of the fall semester. The announcement itself wasn’t particularly surprising, as the financial woes of the university were an open secret. University leadership, working with the Archdiocese of Oklahoma City and former members of Congress from Oklahoma had applied for a US Department of Agriculture rural development loan to pay off the past debts of the university, which would have signaled to important donors connected to the university that the institution had a future. The loan was denied a few days before the announcement was made. How the university found itself in this position is a depressing story, especially considering the hidden struggle to re-assert the university’s mission and identity as a faithful and authentic Catholic organization.

St. Gregory’s University was founded by a group of French Benedictine monks who came to Oklahoma to teach and evangelize the Citizen Potowatomi Nation of American Indians. Founded in 1875, what would become St. Gregory’s was for most of its history a high school, then a junior college. In the 1990s the school began offering Bachelor’s degrees. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, St. Gregory’s began offering Master’s degrees. The school had prided itself on being the only Catholic institution of higher education in Oklahoma. In recent years the university became known for having a solid, faithful theology and philosophy department, made possible in part due to the requirement the university put in place that each theology professor bear a mandatum from the Archbishop of Oklahoma City.

The administration of St. Gregory’s, under the leadership of President Michael Scaperlanda, issued a new Strategic Plan in February 2016 designed to give the university direction towards a secure and sustainable future. Critical to this was the focus on an authentic Catholic identity. To this end, members of the planning team removed language from institutional guiding documents that invoked the Land O’Lakes declaration and instead explicitly cited Pope St. John Paul II’s Ex Corde Ecclesiae as a key guiding document. The implementation of the Strategic Plan was part of a larger effort at re-establishing Catholic orthodoxy at the university, since the institution had for many years embraced the pedagogical model of more well-known and increasingly secular Catholic institutions around the US.

A story could be easily told recounting the numerous lost financial opportunities that were directly responsible for the university running up debts year after year. Two years ago the university nearly shut its doors, only to receive an outside financial intervention mere hours before the deadline. There are stories of numerous students from wealthy, elite families, who throughout the years attended St. Gregory’s University, and relationships with these families that were never developed. There are stories about relationships with local wealthy donors and organizations that were undermined by fiscal mismanagement. There are even stories about the university not running a deficit only one year in the past several decades (the year the Benedictine Abbot was the president). The situation the university faces now is very heavily influenced by financial mismanagement going back decades. The present administration enacted much needed changes that turned fundraising and student enrollment numbers around, but not soon enough to make a difference had these changes been enacted two or three years earlier, St. Gregory’s might still be operating today.

Behind the scenes, a war for the identity of the university was being waged. The battle was being fought between the faculty, staff, and administrators who favored a pedagogy that was characterized by orthodoxy and fidelity to the faith, and those who favored a more secular approach (either explicitly or implicitly). This internal battle for the heart and soul of SGU was fought away from the eyes of students in committee meetings that would determine the future of the university, had it survived its financial situation. One such battleground was over the revision of the Institutional Core, which sought to update the core curriculum that students would be required to study as they pursued the various majors offered by the university. The revision of the core curriculum sought to re-establish a classical liberal arts education that was fully in line with the Catholic and Benedictine identity of the university.

Dr. Jason Fugikawa, chair of the Department of Philosophy and Theology at St. Gregory’s, oversaw the revision process. “We at the center of the core curriculum revision were committed to putting together something truly grand. Very few institutions in Catholic higher education are doing that these days,” Fugikawa said recently. “Everyone is calculating, marketing, and appealing to student-customers. We desired instead to ask ourselves what was best in the tradition that we had received and how best could we present this to the students entrusted to our care.” Essential to this process was the re-establishing of the fundamentally Christian value that the university had a responsibility to be a good steward of the education of students. In a Catholic university, the formation of students is of primary importance.

The process of revising the institutional core was part of a larger restoration of fidelity at St. Gregory’s. “In the core revision, there was a certain jubilee restoration of each discipline’s ancestral territory with the fresh energy of Easter morning in the garden beside the empty tomb,” Fugikawa said. “While the Integrated Humanity Sequence we were developing dealt with what was perennial and old, we sought to give it life and renewal through the classical Trivium and Quadrivium presented in versatile, team taught courses.” Spiritual renewal was a core theme at St. Gregory’s, with Daily Mass attendance of students and staff being higher in the final year of operation than at any time in recent history, and Eucharistic processions being institutionalized as important practices on the university campus.

Of course, life had not always been this way at St. Gregory’s. At one time the Catholic identity of the university was not as centrally important as it had become under the leadership of President Scaperlanda. Characteristic of the cultural rebellion of the 1960s, the opening pages of the Land O’Lakes statement famously calls for greater independence for Catholic institutions: “The Catholic University today must be a university in the full modern sense of the word, with a strong commitment to and concern for academic excellence. To perform its teaching and research functions effectively the Catholic university must have a true autonomy and academic freedom in the face of authority of whatever kind, lay or clerical, external to the academic community itself. To say this is simply to assert that institutional autonomy and academic freedom are essential conditions of life and growth and indeed of survival for Catholic universities as for all universities.” The linking of academic excellence to freedom from external authority is a highly dubious claim in hindsight given the state of higher education in the US and West broadly today. Early drafts of the university’s strategic plan referenced both the Land O’Lakes declaration and Ex Corde Ecclesiae, in a likely attempt to reconcile both positions. This futile attempt was ultimately corrected by faithful Catholics who removed the Land O’Lakes references entirely when the opportunity arose.

Much of the financial problems that undermined the university began in earnest when the number of monks and nuns teaching courses plummeted in the face of the vocations crisis that the wider Church has been unable to address. As the numbers of religious faculty decreased the university was forced to replace them with lay faculty, which was especially difficult in a state like Oklahoma, where no more than 6 percent of the population self-identify as Catholic. Combined with the financial constraints faced by the university consistently throughout its recent history, the inability to pay competitive salaries to faculty and administrative staff resulted in an understaffed university, which in turn seriously harmed the ability of St. Gregory’s to attract students in numbers that would have enabled it to achieve financial sustainability. Combined with internal struggles over the reform of the institutional core, the questions that must be asked for other Catholic institutions must be: can institutions return to an authentic Catholic identity after decades of adherence to the Land O’Lakes statement? What effect does academic separation from the magisterial authority of the Church have on the vocations of those religious orders whose apostolate was education?

It is worth inquiring how many of those Catholic institutions that adopted the Land O’Lakes statement—beyond Notre Dame and Georgetown—are thriving today. Is there a link between the adoption of “academic freedom” in the secular sense and the closing of numerous small Catholic institutions in the United States? For now, the staff, faculty, and administrators who brought a sense of fidelity back to St. Gregory’s University can know that they were faithful to their duties as Catholics to present an authentically Catholic education to the students whose education they were entrusted with. In the end, despite the closure of the university, that may be all that matters.


The Tomb of the Most Holy Virgin, Jerusalem

Located in the Valley of Jeoshaphat, at the bottom of Mount of Olives, the Church of Dormition was carved – in stone – over the site were for a short time, the Holy Virgin was buried. Across the street from the Church of Dormition is the Church of All Nations or the Church of Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane and, immediately near it was the Cave of Gethsemane.

Here, in the depths of the earth her holy body was placed, she who carried in her arms the Saviour of the universe! Here, in the village of Gethsemane, the apostles gathered at the edges of the earth to accompanied to the grave the Mother of Life! Here St. Thomas, arriving a bit later, has never found her precious body as it was lifted up into the heaven by her Son. Here, she had laid for a short time, the humble “handmaid of the Lord”, the most holy of all mothers, the cleanest of all virgins, the Mother of Life, the intercessor for the world, the comforter of all mothers, the supporter of virgins, the strengthener of the poor and the protector of monastics and of all Christians!

Why is it believed that the Tomb of the Virgin Mary was in Jerusalem?

According to the Holy Christian tradition, shortly after her burial, her body was raised up to heaven, not by its own power but by the power of our Lord Jesus Christ. Some strongly believe that Jerusalem is the place where the Holy Virgin Mary was buried, while others say that her burial place would be in Ephesus, the place where Saint John the Evangelist lived up until passing away in the Lord .

St. John the Evangelist took her in his care, when our Savior proclaimed to him on the Cross “Behold thy Mother”. She must had accompanied St John everywhere, but there was no testimony to indicate how long she stayed in Jerusalem and how long in Ephesus. Nothing it is said about the place where the Angel Gabriel announced her death.

The New Testament does not tell us about the death of the Blessed Virgin. However, the Tomb of Virgin Mary is described in many apocryphal books. Although not all are worthy of credence, some generalities are very apparent. ” The Dormition/Assumption of Mary ” dates back to the beginning of the II-nd century, after the latest research – the author had used as source, the tradition of the early church. This book can be considered a witness to the veneration of the place where the Virgin Mary was buried. According to this source, Jesus Himself would give instruction to the apostle Peter on the burial-place: ” the Garden of Gethsemane, outside the walls of Jerusalem, in the Valley of Jeoshaphat, acrossed from the river Chedron. “

According to the “Acts of the Apostle John – the Evangelist”, written by Prohor and composed by Lencius in 160-170, St. John the Evangelist been of an old age went to Ephesus accompanied only by Prohor and, this happened after the death of Mary. In the two letters addressed by St. Ignatius to Saint John and discovered around the year 370, it is mentioned that the Holy Virgin has spent her last days in Jerusalem. Another letter of Dionysius the Areopagite to the Bishop Titus (363), the writings of St. John on Mary’s Assumption (V century) and “The Book of the Blessed Virgin Mother of God” by Meliton of Sardes (V – VI centuries) indicate as the place for the tomb, the Garden of Gethsemane.

The Holy Fathers also speak on “the grave of the Virgin” as been located in Jerusalem. A historical work, “Euthymiaca historia “, describes the moment when the Byzantine Emperor Marcian (450 -457) and his wife Pulheria asked the Patriarch of Jerusalem, at the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451), for the relics of the Theotokos. The Patriarch Juvenal answered, ” three days after sleep, the body of the Holy Virgin was raised up to heaven, and the Tomb in the Garden of Gethsemane bares only her Veil”, which was then taken to the Church of Blachernae in Constantinople (today’s capital of Turkey, Istambul).

St. Epiphanius of Salamis (403) is the first to talk about the Dormition of the Virgin, showing that St. John the Evangelist went to Ephesus alone. In the next century, Gregory of Tours, Isidore of Seville, Saint Modest, St Sophronie of Jerusalem, St. Herman of Constantinople, St. Andrew of Crete, Saint John Damascene and others fathers have spoken about the existence of the Virgin’ Tomb in Jerusalem.

The Tomb of Our Lady in Jerusalem – History

Archaeological works bring testimony to what was mentioned above. The existence of an ancient Christian basilica dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, along the river valley Chedron also called the Valley of Jeoshaphat in Hebrew is very important. The Tomb of Virgin Mary was situated in the north side of the Garden of Gethsemane, deep down an underground gallery carved in stone. Moreover, St. Helena – the mother of Emperor Constantine – had built a church over it between the years 325-337.

A chapel was built by Patriarch Juvenal at the beginning of the fifth century, which soon had become a center for pilgrimage. During the emperor Maurice the upper basilica was built and the old sanctuary became the Tomb of the Virgin Mary. In 614, the church was destroyed by the Persians, together with other Christian churches in Palestine. But the Basilica was rebuilt soon after, as it is testified by the visit of pilgrim Arkulf in 670.

In the eleventh century, the crusaders erected another church which is partially preserved today.

In 1187, the church is destroyed by Saladin, and everything that is left, is the southern entrance and the staircase that descended to the grave. Its constant destruction, have made the initial basilica to sink slowly, been left without natural light today.

Starting with 1757, the Tomb of the Virgin Mary was taken into the care of the Greek Orthodox Church. Archaeological excavations from 1972 had confirmed that the grave was part of a Christian cemetery dating from the first century and that its original structure with three rooms, corresponds to the technique used during that period.

Descending down the middle gallery towards the Tomb, one can see two small chapels, one on each side of the stairway. On the right is the chapel of the Saints Joachim and Anne – the parents of the Holy Virgin having an altar for worship, and on the left side is the chapel of the righteous Joseph, the Virgin protector, both been mentioned starting with the XIV century.

The Tomb of the Virgin is carved into a white stone. It is well-known for the shape that her holy body left in the rock. Over this stone a small altar was built where the Divine Liturgy is offered daily.

A miracle-working icon of the Virgin of Jerusalem lies behind her Tomb. But this is not the only miracle-working icon found here. On August 15 (new calendar) the Orthodox Church celebrates the Dormition of the Virgin. The Orthodox miracle-working icon of the Dormition, which is preserved near the Holy Sepulchre (the Holy Tomb of our Lord) is brought out on August 10 in great procession. The icon remains at the Tomb of the Virgin until August 16, when it is taking back to Jerusalem.

On the Dormition of Virgin – a word from the ” Prologs”

When our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, have deemed to take His Holy Mother, three days before her passing she was visited by an angel of God (Gabriel), announcing her passing from this earth to the heavenly joy. The Holy Theotokos, received the news with great joy and went to the Mount of Olives to pray .

Then returning to her home, she prepared for the burial, entrusting her neighbors that, by moving into heaven, not only they will not be forgotten but she will seek out and protect the whole world. Then she divided her garments among poor widows, had asked forgiveness from all and lying down, she prayed for the strengthening and the peace of all. And blessing everyone present, she gave her soul into the hands of her Son. And many healings took place by her blessing.

Then it was a great thunder and a miracle in the sky – that all the apostles of Christ came from around the world to Mary’ house in Jerusalem. And Peter began to sing the burial chant, and all the apostles raised her bed and accompanied her body to the grave. Arriving in the village of Gethsemane to bury her body, the apostles remained there for three more days waiting on the Apostle Thomas that was missing.

When the Apostle Thomas returned he was sadden for not been made worthy to see the fallen asleep of the Virgin, with the other Apostles. And they opened the Tomb of the Virgin that he may also see. And behold, a great wonder, the body of the Virgin was not found but only her precious shroud was left behind, as a consolation and a moving testimony that her body was lifted up into heaven.

The Mother of God and our Mother with her body undefiled, alive and glorified, was raised into heaven, thus becoming the first among us to be resurrected from the dead as a leverage to all mankind. But unlike our Lord and Savior’ Resurrection, she was taken to heaven by the angels and not by her own power. It is from heaven that she prays unceasingly for us. Let us have great confidence in her prayers and let us honor and venerate her as she is the first that can intercede to her Son for us. Glory of our Lord and Saviour in the highest. Amin!


St. Peter's Basilica

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

St. Peter’s Basilica, also called New St. Peter’s Basilica, present basilica of St. Peter in Vatican City (an enclave in Rome), begun by Pope Julius II in 1506 and completed in 1615 under Paul V. It is designed as a three-aisled Latin cross with a dome at the crossing, directly above the high altar, which covers the shrine of St. Peter the Apostle. The edifice—the church of the popes—is a major pilgrimage site.

The idea of building the church was conceived by Pope Nicholas V (reigned 1447–55), who was prompted by the state in which he found Old St. Peter’s Basilica—walls leaning far out of the perpendicular and frescoes covered with dust. In 1452 Nicholas ordered Bernardo Rossellino to begin the construction of a new apse west of the old one, but the work stopped with Nicholas’s death. Paul II, however, entrusted the project to Giuliano da Sangallo (see Sangallo family)in 1470.

On April 18, 1506, Julius II laid the first stone for the new basilica. It was to be erected in the form of a Greek cross according to the plan of Donato Bramante. On Bramante’s death (1514) Leo X commissioned as his successors Raphael, Fra Giovanni Giocondo, and Giuliano da Sangallo, who modified the original Greek cross plan to a Latin cross with three aisles separated by pillars. The architects after Raphael’s death in 1520 were Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Baldassarre Peruzzi, and Andrea Sansovino.

After the sack of Rome in 1527, Paul III (1534–49) entrusted the undertaking to Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, who returned to Bramante’s plan and erected a dividing wall between the area for the new basilica and the eastern part of the old one, which was still in use. On Sangallo’s death (1546) Paul III commissioned the aged Michelangelo as chief architect, a post he held under Julius III and Pius IV. At the time of Michelangelo’s death in 1564, the drum for the massive dome was practically complete. He was succeeded by Pirro Ligorio and Giacomo da Vignola. Gregory XIII (1572–85) placed Giacomo della Porta in charge of the work. The dome, modified from Michelangelo’s design, was finally completed at the insistence of Sixtus V (1585–90), and Gregory XIV (1590–91) ordered the erection of the lantern above it. Clement VIII (1592–1605) demolished the apse of Old St. Peter’s and erected the new high altar over the altar of Calixtus II.

Paul V (1605–21) adopted Carlo Maderno’s plan, giving the basilica the form of a Latin cross by extending the nave to the east, thus completing the 615-foot- (187-metre-) long main structure. Maderno also completed the facade of St. Peter’s and added an extra bay on each end to support campaniles. Although Maderno left designs for these campaniles, only one was built, and that was of a different design executed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1637. Under the commission of Alexander VII (1655–67) Bernini designed the elliptical piazza, outlined by colonnades, that serves as the approach to the basilica.


What we know about John the Baptist&aposs life

The story of John the Baptist comes to us from the New Testament, particularly the gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John), and from Flavius Josephus’ work The Antiquities of the Jews. After living an ascetic life in the desert, John emerged into the lower Jordan Valley preaching about the imminent arrival of God’s judgment, and urging his followers to repent their sins and be baptized in preparation for the coming Messiah.

John the Baptist’s preparatory message attracted hundreds, perhaps thousands, of followers from Jerusalem and Judea. He made it clear that he himself was not the Messiah, and foretold the coming of Jesus: “one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry.” (Matthew 3:11).

Many religious scholars agree that John’s subsequent baptism of Jesus in the River Jordan, described in three of the gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) and by a number of other canonical and non-canonical sources, is almost certainly a historical event. The archaeological site at Al-Maghtas, Jordan (identified as the Biblical �thany beyond the Jordan”) has been viewed as the baptism site since the late Roman-early Byzantine era. Most Christian denominations view Jesus&apos baptism as a major milestone, and the basis for the Christian rite of baptism that has survived through the centuries.


His writings

Genuine, doubtful, spurious

Of the writings commonly attributed to Gregory the following are now admitted as genuine on all hands: "Moralium Libri XXXV" "Regulae Pastoralis Liber" "Dialogorum Libri IV" "Homiliarum in Ezechielem Prophetam Libri II" "Homiliarum in Evangelia Libri II" "Epistolarum Libri XIV". The following are almost certainly spurious: "In Librum Primum Regum Variarum Expositionum Libri VI" "expositio super Cantica Canticorum" "Expositio in VII Psalmos Poenitentiales" "Concordia Quorundam Testimoniorum S. Scripturae". Besides the above there are attributed to Gregory certain liturgical hymns, the Gregorian Sacramentary, and the Antiphonary. (See ANTIPHONARY SACRAMENTARY.)

Works of Gregory complete or partial editions translations, recensions, etc.


Saint Gregory the Great’s Sermon on the Mystery of the Resurrection

1. It has been my custom, beloved brethren, to speak to you on many of the Gospel readings, by means of a sermon I had already dictated for you. But since I have been unable, because of the weakness of my throat, to read to you myself what I had prepared, I notice that some among you listen somewhat indifferently. So, contrary to my usual practice, I shall for the future make the effort during the sacred solemnities of the Mass to explain the Gospel, not through a sermon I have dictated, but by speaking directly to you myself.

So for the future it shall be the rule for me to speak to you in this way. For the words which are spoken directly to sluggish souls awaken them more readily than a sermon that is read to them moving them by that touch as it were of authority, so that they listen with more attention. I am not, as I well know, competent to fulfill this office: but let your charity make good what my ignorance denies me. For I have in mind Him Who has said: Open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it (Ps. lxxx. ii). We all have in mind a good work , and it will be perfected by His divine assistance (II Tim. iii. 17). And also, this great solemnity of the Sunday of the Resurrection gives us a fitting occasion for speaking to you: for it would indeed be unfitting that the tongue of our body should be silent in the praises that are clue this day that day on which the Body of our Author rose again from the dead.

Pope Saint Gregory the Great

2. You have heard, Beloved, how the holy women who had followed the Lord came to His tomb, bringing with them sweet spices, so that with tender affection they might tend Him in death Whom they had loved in life. And this tells us something which we should observe in the life of our holy Church. And it is important we give attention to what here took place: to see what we mint do to imitate them. And we also, who believe in Him Who died, truly come with sweet spices to His tomb, when we come seeking the Lord, bringing with us the sweet odour of virtue, and the credit of good works.

But these women who came bringing sweet spices beheld angels. And this signifies that those souls who, because of their holy love, come seeking the Lord, bearing the sweet spices of virtue, shall also see the citizens of heaven. And let us also take note of what it means that the angel is seen sitting on the right side. For what does the left side mean but this present life and the right hand side, if not life eternal? Because of this it is written in the Canticle of Canticles: His left hand is under my head, and his right hand shall embrace me (Cant. ii. 6).

And so, since Our Redeemer has now passed over beyond the mortality of this present life, tightly does the Angel, who had come to announce His entry into eternal life, sit at the right side . And he came clothed in white: for he was announcing the joy of this our present solemnity. For the whiteness of his garments signifies the glory of our great Feast. Should we say ours 0t His? That we may speak truly let us say that it is both ours and His. For this day of our Redeemer’s Resurrection is also our day of great joy for it has restored m to immortality. It is also a day of joy for the angels: for restoring us to heaven, it has filled up again the number of its citizens. On this our festival day, and His, an angel appeared, clothed in white robes, because they are rejoicing that because we are restored to heaven the losses their heavenly home had suffered are now made good.

3. But let us hear what is said to the women who came? Be not affrighted! As though he said to them: Let them fear who love not the coming of the heavenly citizens. Let them fear who, steeped in bodily desires, have no hope of belonging to them. But you, why should you fear, meeting your own? Matthew also, describing the appearance of the Angel, says of him: And his countenance was as lightning, and his raiment as snow (Mt. xxviii. 3). Lightning awakens dread and fear, the white radiance of snow is soothing. For Almighty God is both terrifying to sinners, and comforting to those who are good. Rightly then is the Angel, the Witness of the Resurrection, revealed to us with countenance like the lightning, and his garments white as snow: so that even by his appearance he might awaken fear in the reprobate, and bring consolation to the just.

And rightly also, for the same reason, there went before the Lord’s People in the desert, a column of fire by night, and a column of smoke by day (Ex. xiii: 21, 22). For in fire there is fear but in the cloud of smoke the comforting assurance of what we can see: day also meaning the life of the just, and night the life of sinners. Because of this Paul, speaking to converted sinners, says: For you were heretofore darkness, but now light in the Lord (Eph. v. 8). So a pillar of cloud was set before them by day, and a pillar of fire by night: because Almighty God shall appear mild of countenance to the just, but fearful to the wicked. Coming to judge us, He shall comfort the one by the mildness of His countenance, and terrify the other with the severity of His justice.

4. Now let us hear what the angel says. You seek Jesus of Nazareth . Jesus, in the Latin tongue, is saving that is, Saviour . Then however many were called Jesus, by name, not because of the reality it means. So the place is added, to make clear of what Jesus he is speaking: Of Nazareth . And to this he adds the reason they seek Him: Who was crucified . And then he goes on: He is risen, he is not here . That He was not there was said only of His Bodily Presence for nowhere is He absent in the power of His divinity. But go , he continues, tell his disciples and Peter, that he goeth before you into Galilee .

Now we have to ask ourselves, why did he, speaking of the Disciples, single out Peter by name? But, had the Angel not referred to him in this way, Peter would never have dared to appear again among the Apostles. He is bidden then by name to come, so that he will not despair because of his denial of Christ. And here we must ask ourselves, why did Almighty God permit the one He had placed over the whole Church to be frightened by the voice of a maid servant, and even to deny Christ Himself? This we know was a great dispensation of the divine mercy, so that he who was to be the shepherd of the Church might learn, through his own fall, to have compassion on others. God therefore first shows him to himself, and then places him over others: to learn through his own weakness how to bear mercifully with the weakness of others.

5. And well did he say of Our Redeemer that: He goeth before you into Galilee there you shall see him, as he told you . For Galilee means, passing-over . And now our Redeemer has passed over from His suffering to His Resurrection, from death to life, from punishment to glory, from mortality to immortality. And, after His Resurrection, His Disciples first see Him in Galilee as afterwards, filled with joy, we also shall see the glory of the Resurrection, if we now pass over from the ways of sin to the heights of holy living. He therefore Who is announced to us from the tomb is shown to us by crossing over: for He Whom we acknowledge in the denial of our flesh is seen in the passing over of our soul. Because of the solemnity of the day, we have gone briefly over these points in our explanation of the Gospel. Let us now speak in more detail of this same solemnity.

6. There are two lives one of which we knew, the other we did not know of. The one is mortal, the other immortal the one linked with human infirmity, the other to incorruption one is marked for death, the other for resurrection. The Mediator between God and man, the Man Jesus Christ, came, and took upon Himself the one, and revealed to us the other. The one He endured by dying the other He revealed when He rose from the dead. Had He then foretold to us, who knew His mortal life, the Resurrection of His Body, and had not visibly shown it to us, who would believe in His promises? So, becoming Man, He shows Himself in our flesh of His own will He suffered death by His own power He rose from the dead and by this proof He showed us that which He promises as a reward.

But perhaps some one will say: Of course He rose: for being God He could not be held in death. So, to give light to our understanding, to strengthen our weakness, He willed to give us proof, and not of His Resurrection only. In that hour He died alone but He did not rise alone from the dead. For it is written: And many bodies of the saints that had slept arose (Mt. xxvii. 52). He has therefore taken away the argument of those who do not believe.

And let no one say: No man can hope that that will happen to him which the God-man proved to us in His Body for here we learn that men did rise again with God, and we do not doubt that these were truly men. If then we are the members of our Redeemer, let us look forward to that which we know was fulfilled in our Head. Even if we should be diffident, we ought to hope that what we have heard of His worthier members will be fulfilled also in us His meanest members.

7. And here there comes to mind what the Jews, insulting the Crucified Son of God, cried out: If he be the king of Israel, let him come down from the cross, and we will believe him . Had He, yielding to their insults, then come down from the Cross, He would not have proved to us the power of patience. He waited for the little time left, He bore with their insults, He submitted to their mockery, He continued patient, and evoked our admiration and He Who refused to descend from the Cross, rose again from the sepulchre. More did it matter so to rise from the sepulchre than to descend from the Cross. A far greater thing was it to overcome death by rising from the sepulchre, than to preserve life by descending from the Cross.

And when the Jews saw that despite their insults He would not descend from the Cross, and when they saw Him dying, they rejoiced thinking they had overcome Him and caused His Name to be forgotten. But now through all the world His Name has grown in honour, because of the death whereby this faithless people thought they had caused Him to be forgotten. And He Whom they rejoiced over as slain, they grieved over when He was dead: for they know it was through death He had come to His glory.

The deeds of Samson, related in the Book of Judges, foreshadowed this Day (Judges xvi. 1-3). For when Samson went into Gaza, the city of the Philistines, they, learning he had come in, immediately surrounded the city and placed guards before the gates and they rejoiced because they had Samuel in their power. What Samson did we know. At midnight he took the gates of the city, and carried them to the top of a hill outside. Whom does Samson symbolize, Beloved, in this, if not our Redeemer? What does Gaza symbolize, if not the gates of hell? And what the Philistines, if not the perfidy of the Jews, who seeing the Lord dead, and His Body in the sepulchre, placed guards before it rejoicing that they had Him in their power, and that He Whom the Author of life had glorified was now enclosed by the gates of hell: as they had rejoiced when they thought they had captured Samson in Gaza.

But in the middle of the night Samson, not alone went forth from the city, but also bore off its gates, as our Redeemer, rising before day, not alone went forth free from hell, but also destroyed the very gates of hell. He took away the gates, and mounted with them to the top of a hill for by His Resurrection He bore off the gates of hell, and by His Ascension He mounted to the kingdom of heaven.

Let us, Beloved, love with all our hearts this glorious Resurrection, which was first made known to us by a Figure, and then made known in deed and for love of it let us be prepared to die. See how in the Resurrection of our Author we have come to know His ministering angels as our own fellow citizens. Let us hasten on to that great assembly of these fellow citizens. Let us, since we cannot see them face to face, join ourselves to them in heart and desire. Let us cross over from evildoing to virtue, that we may merit to see our Redeemer in Galilee. May Almighty God help us to that life which is our desire: He Who for us delivered His only Son to death, Jesus Christ our Lord, Who with Him reigns One with the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.


Tomb of St. Gregory of Tatev - History



Monument to Gregory XIIII
(Dec 5, 1590 - Oct 16, 1591) Niccolo Sfondrati
by Prospero da Brescia

"The ornamentation of a tomb, the show of mourning, and the funeral pomps, are consolations for the survivors, not benefits to the dead. For pious souls who, free from sins, have flown to the Lord, it matters little that their bodies have a sordid tomb, or none even as the costliest tomb does nothing for the impious and those who are still bound in the bonds of sin." - Gregory XIV


From: 'The Basilica of St. Peter's in the Vatican' by Franco Cosimo Panini

The funerary monument of Gregory XIV (Niccolo Sfondrati, born in Somma Lombardo, Varese,in 1535, and pope from 1590 to 1591) is one of the less elaborate in the Basilica and consists of a niche set into the wall with a simple sarcophagus below, bearing the dedicatory inscription. Giacomo della Porta was responsible for the design, while the sculpture is by Prospero Bresciano. The pope's arms, supported by angels reclining in the spandrels, crown the arch two other coats of arms and two female personifications are painted in grisaille in the intrados. At the sides of the niche are statues of Religion (left) and Justice (right), and four rectangular panels, three of which are decorated with monochrome frescoes.

From: 'Seminarian's Guide'
Gregory XIII was Pope for less than a year, in 1590 and 1591. He received no statue, and is an unpopular Pope, for naming an inept family member as Secretary of State who squandered the Papal treasury during a local famine. Note unusual "XIIII" instead of "XIV." It is said to be a "recycled" tombstone that had been rejected a year before for Gregory XIII's monument!

From: 'St. Peter's Basilica - A Virtual Tour' by Our Sunday Visitor
. the humble tomb of Gregory XIV. Built by Prospero da Brescia with the two lateral statuettes of Faith and Knowledge, it was originally meant for Pope Gregory XIII. However, after the transfer of his remains to the above monument, the tomb was adapted with a stucco urn for Pope Gregory XIV Sfondrati, who reigned for only 10 months, from 1590 to 1591.

From: 'Saint Peter's' by James Lees-Milne
The lantern was put in place by Gregory XIV,who reigned for only ten months, He had the grace to inscribe upon the rim of the eye under the lantern the concise Latin phrase, which may be translated: "To the glory of St. Peter and Pope Sixtus V in the fifth year of his pontificate, 1590

From: 'Lives of the Popes'
The pontificate of Gregory XIV was one of the least popular and least successful in history, marred as it was by the appointment of his incompetent nephew as cardinal secretary of state and by plague, food shortages and lawlessness in Rome.

Although only fifty-five years of age, he was physically weak and often in pain. The state of his health and his own insecurity about his lack of experience in the Curia led him to name his own twenty-nine-year-old nephew, Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, cardinal-secretary of state. Paolo, however, was more interested in his own and his family's well-being than in that of the Church. Resentment developed quickly among the other cardinals.

He also banned all gambling on papal elections, the length of a pontificate, or the creation of cardinals.

From: 'The Lives and Times of the Popes' by The Chevalier Artaud De Montor
A great number of votes were united on Cardinal Gabriel Paleotto, but he had not a sufficient number two new cardinals arriving, thirty-six votes were requisite. At length, on the 5th of December, 1590, at about noon, the fifty-six electors elected, with open votes, Cardinal Sfondrati, then aged fifty-five years. He thus on the instant found himself honored with a charge which he had not expected or desired. At the moment he was so astonished that, turning to the cardinals, who saluted him as Holy Father, he said: "God forgive you! What have you done?"

However, he burst into tears, and refused to walk, and his voice was choked with sobs. The sedia gestatoria was brought in, and he was carried in spite of himself into the Basilica of the Vatican, amidst the acclamations of the populace who wished him a long reign.

Campana relates that, to relieve the sufferings of the patient, even pulverized precious stones and gold were administered to him. Muratori, on that subject, remarks: "This good pope, then, was surrounded either by stupid physicians or culpable ministers." The pope soon sank under the violence of his sufferings, and died on the 15th of October, 1591, at the age of fifty-six. He had governed ten months and ten days. He was interred in the Vatican, towards the middle of the Gregorian Chapel, near Gregory XIII, in a tomb almost destitute of ornament.

------------------
The biographers mention as a curious personal trait of Gregory XIV a nervous tendency to laughter which occasionally became irresistible, and which manifested itself even at his coronation. He was succeeded by Innocent IX after he died due to a large gallstone - reportedly 70 grams.


Vsebina

Po tradiciji je samostan Tatev poimenovan po Eustateju, učencu apostola sv. Tadeja, ki je na tem območju pridigal in bil mučen. Njegovo ime se je razvilo v Tatev [4] .

Priljubljena etimologija vključuje legendo, ki pripoveduje o dogodku, ki je vezan na gradnjo glavne cerkve, kjer se je vajenec na skrivaj povzpel na vrh stolpa, kjer je nameraval postaviti križ po svoji zasnovi. Vendar pa je vajenca opazil njegov mojster med spustom. Šokiran nad odkritjem je izgubil oporo in padel v prepad, med padanjem je Boga prosil, naj mu podeli krila, kar je v armenščini: Ta Tev [5] .

Samostan Tatev stoji v jugovzhodni Armeniji, na območju antične armenske province Sjunik, nedaleč od mesta Goris in 280 km od Erevana. Tateška planota je v uporabi že od predkrščanskih časov, tu je bil poganski tempelj. Tempelj je po prevzemu krščanstva v Armeniji v 4. stoletju nadomestila skromna cerkev.

Razvoj samostana Tatev se je začel v 9. stoletju, ko je postal sedež škofije Sjunik. Zgodovinar Stepanos Orbelian v svoji Zgodovini province Sjunik opisuje gradnjo nove cerkve blizu stare leta 848 s finančno pomočjo princa Filipa iz Sjunika. Z rastjo gospodarskega in političnega pomena centra starajoče se stavbe niso več ustrezale zahtevam, zato je škof Hovhanes (Janez) dobil finančno pomoč princa Ašota iz Sjunika za gradnjo novega samostana.

V začetku 11. stoletja je Tatev gostil okoli 1000 menihov in veliko obrtnikov. Leta 1044 so oborožene sile sosednjih emiratov uničile cerkev svetega Gregorja in okoliške zgradbe, ki so jih kmalu zatem rekonstruirali. Leta 1087 je bila severno od kompleksa zgrajena cerkev svete Marije. Samostan je utrpel znatno škodo med invazijami Seldžukov v 12. stoletju in potresom leta 1136. Leta 1170 so seldžuški Turki oropali samostan in požgali približno 10.000 rokopisov. Samostan je bil obnovljen s prizadevanji škofa Stepanosa konec 13. stoletja. [6]

Samostan je bil v času mongolske vladavine oproščen davkov. S pomočjo družine Orbelian je ponovno pridobil svojo gospodarsko moč. Njegov vpliv se je še stopnjeval, ko so leta 1286 Orbelijci prevzeli nadzor nad samostanom, Stepanos Orbelian pa je bil posvečen v metropolita in mu je uspelo ponovno združiti številne okoliške škofije v svojem kraljestvu. Z ustanovitvijo univerze v 14. stoletju je Tatev postal glavno središče armenske kulture.

Med pohodi Timur Lenka v Sjunik (1381-1387) je bil Tatev oplenjen, požgan in opuščen velik del ozemlja. Samostan je dobil dodaten udarec med invazijo Šahruh Mirze leta 1434.

Samostan se je ponovno rodil v 17. in 18. stoletju obnovljene so bile njegove stavbe in dodane nove. Ponovno so ga oropali med vpadi perzijskih sil, ki jih je leta 1796 vodil Aga Mahmet kan. Leta 1836 je carska Rusija ustanovila metropolitansko oblast Tatev z vsiljevanjem Pologenije in Sjunik je postal del Erevanske škofije [7] .

26. aprila 1921 je 2. Pan-Zangezurijski kongres, ki je potekal v Tatevu, razglasil neodvisnost Republike gorska Armenija. Država je vključevala regije kanjona Tatev, Sisian in Gndevaz. Mesto Goris je postalo glavno mesto nepriznane države, Garegin Nzhdeh pa vrhovni poveljnik.

Samostan je bil hudo poškodovan po potresu leta 1931, kupola cerkve sv. Pavla in Petra in zvonik sta bila uničena. V zadnjih letih so cerkev obnovili, zvonik pa do danes ostaja uničen.

Obzidan Tatevski samostan sestavljajo tri cerkve – sv. Pavla in Petra, sv. Gregorja Prosvetitelja in Matere Božje - knjižnica, refektorij, zvonik, mavzolej in druge upravne in pomožne stavbe.

Cerkev sv. Pavla in Petra je bila zgrajena med letoma 895 in 906. Do južne stene cerkve je bila leta 1043 dodana obokana dvorana. Kmalu po letu 1087 je bila ob severnih utrdbah dodana cerkev Matere Božje. Leta 1295 je cerkev sv. Gregorja Prosvetitelja, ki je bila porušena med potresom, na pobudo tedanjega škofa Stepanosa Orbeliana, nadomestila nova. Leta 1787 je bil zgrajen mavzolej armenskega teologa Gregorja Tatevevskega ob zahodni steni cerkve svetega Gregorja in do konca 19. stoletja zgrajeno preddverje in zvonik na zahodnem vhodu cerkve sv. Pavla in sv. Peter.

Poleg stavb se samostan ponaša s pokončnim nihalom, znanem kot Gavazan (palica). Ta steber je bil zgrajen v 10. stoletju po dokončanju cerkve Pavla in Petra in je preživel številne invazije in potrese relativno neokrnjen.

V 14. stoletju so na jugu, zahodu in severu samostana postavili utrdbe z zgradbami za bivanje, administracijo in druge namene. V 18. stoletju so naredili dodatke za nastanitev škofovega bivališča, celice za redovnike, shrambo, jedilnico, kuhinjo, pekarno in klet. Šestnajst pravokotnih učilnic, pokritih z obokanimi stropi, je bilo zgrajenih vzdolž glavnih utrdb.

Severovzhodno od samostana je zunaj obzidja je stiskalnica olja. Ima štiri proizvodne prostore, vključno z dvema skladiščnima kupolama in stiskalnimi komorami z obokanimi stropi. Ta mlin je eden najbolje ohranjenih v Armeniji in je odličen prikaz stiskalnic oljk, zgrajenih v regiji v srednjem veku.

Šolske zgradbe samostana Tatev so značilne za arhitekturni slog samostanske vzgojne arhitekture, ki se je uporabljal v poznem srednjeveškem obdobju.

Cerkev sv. Pavla in Petra Uredi

Cerkev sv. Pavla in Petra je posvečena obema Kristusovima apostoloma. Imenujejo jo tudi cerkev Apostolov ali stolnica. Verjetno je bila ta cerkev zgrajena na lokaciji stare cerkve in je tudi podedovala ime. Na zahodni steni cerkve je ohranjen posvečen križni kamen, ki ga je postavil škof Hovhanes, ki daje pomembne zgodovinske podatke o gradnji cerkve.

Cerkev sv. Pavla in Petra je najstarejša ohranjena stavba v kompleksu samostana. Zgrajena je bila s pobudo škofa Hovhanesa in finančno pomočjo vladajočega princa Ašota, njegove žene princese Šušan ter princev Grigorja Supana in Džagika.

Cerkev je pravokotna bazilika, ki se razprostira od zahoda do vzhoda. V apsidi na vzhodni strani je oltar, na njem pa sta dve shrambi, vsaka na ena strani. Osrednja kupola je na vzhodni strani podprta z dvema stebroma, na zahodni pa so prizidki kot oporniki. Streha ima dvoslojni, nagnjen slog, prekrit z velikimi strešniki. Notranjost in zunanja stena sta prekrita s klesanim kamnom. Stene in kupola imajo ozka okna, ki omogočajo osvetlitev ladje. Vzhodna fasada vsebuje niše, ki so okronane z reliefnimi portreti njenih dobrotnikov, princa Ašota in princese Šušan, in so obrobljene z zaščitnimi kačami.

Leta 930 so bile cerkvene stene na pobudo škofa Hakoba Dvinecija okrašene s freskami. Delo so izvedli francoski umetniki, povabljeni iz Konstantinopla, ki so delovali skupaj z lokalnimi armenskimi slikarji. Obrazi glavnih junakov imajo vzhodne lastnosti, vsi napisi pa so v armenščini. [8] Vzhodno apsido krasi Kristus na prestolu s svojimi učenci in svetniki. Na zahodni steni je upodobljena Poslednja sodba, medtem ko severna stena prikazuje prizore iz Jezusovega rojstva. Malo teh okraskov je ohranjenih so danes.

Cerkev sv. Gregorja Prosvetitelja Uredi

Cerkev sv. Gregorja meji na južno steno cerkve sv. Pavla in Petra. Cerkev je bila prvič zgrajena med letoma 836–848 z ukazom in finančno podporo princa Filipa iz Sjunika. Obnovljena je bila v 11. stoletju takoj po seldžuških pohodih, a je bila med potresom leta 1138 ponovno popolnoma uničena. V takem stanju je ostala več kot stoletje, dokler ni bila obnovljena leta 1295.

Cerkev svetega Gregorja je preprosta v gradnji. Nima kupole. V severni in južni steni ima tri podporne stebre, na katerih so loki, na katere je nameščena poševna streha. Vhod je okrašen s finimi geometrijskimi rezbarijami.

Cerkev sv. Matere Božje Uredi

Cerkev Matere Božje je ob severnem obzidju samostanskega kompleksa. Zgrajena je bila leta 1087 kot drugo nadstropje pokritega mavzoleja blizu vhoda. Med potresom 1931 je bila močno poškodovana, vendar so jo obnovili v poznem 20. stoletju.

Gavazan (nihajoč steber) Uredi

Nihajni steber (imenovan Gavazan Siun) je spomenik, posvečen sveti Trojici. Stoji južno od stolnice. To je steber, visok približno 8 metrov, kronan s križem tipa hačkar. Datiran je v 10. stoletje, križ ni bil dodan prej kot v 18. stoletju, lahko pa njegova oblika temelji na zgodnejšem primeru [9] .

Ključni namen stebra je opozoriti na manjši potres in s tem dati zgodnje opozorilne signale o možnih potresih. Po premiku se steber vrne v navpični položaj.

The monastic complex from a closer view

Detailing on the drum of the church

Interior of the drum and dome

The 11th century S. Astvatsatsin church

Funeral chapel of Gregory of Tatev

Funeral chapel of St. Gregory

Funeral chapel of St. Gregory

Chapel of St. Pogos and Petros

Seismographic balancing pillar known as Gavazan

Samostan Tatev je bil fevdalna organizacija [10] . Kmalu po ustanovitvi je postal vidno in vplivno samostansko središče, saj je bil lastnik obsežnih zemljišč in veliko vasi. Najzgodnejši sklici na njegovo ustanovo so opisani v Zgodovini province Sjunik Stepanosa Orbeliana, kjer Orbelian opisuje sporazum, s katerim je princ Ašot, sin princa Filipéa iz Sjunika, določil svoje meje.

Kmalu po prenosu dežel so kmetje Couraberda (današnji Svaranc), Tamalek, Aveladašt in drugih vasi zavrnili oblast samostana in začeli z njim daljši boj. Dvakrat so se protesti spremenili v odprte vstaje in se z nekaj prekinitvami nadaljevali do leta 990, ko je sjuniški kralj Vasak uničil Couraberd in razpršil njegovo prebivalstvo. Zgodovinarji povezujejo vstaje s tondrakijansko herezijo, ki se je pojavila v armenski zgodovini približno v istem času kot kmečke vstaje (9.-11. stoletje) in ki je bila približno v istem času tudi zatrta. Tondraki (armensko: Թոնդրակեաններ) so bili člani proti fevdalne, heretične krščanske sekte, ki je cvetela v srednjeveški Armeniji med zgodnjim 9. stoletjem in 11. stoletjem in je bila osredotočena na okrožje Tondrak, severno od jezera Van v zahodni Armeniji. [11]

Tatevška škofija je imela v lasti 47 vasi in je od 677 drugih vasi prejemala desetino [12] . Dobil je tako gospodarsko moč, da se je škof Hakob v letih 940–950 skušal odcepiti od matičnega sedeža Ečmiadzina. Njegove separatistične sanje so bile uničene, ko ga je anatematiziral katolikos Anania Mokaci. Okoliške regije so izkoristile oslabljen položaj Tateva, zavrnile njegovo premoč in ustanovile svoje škofije. Leta 958 je škof Vahan (pozneje katolikos Vahan Sjuneci) povrnil nekatere škofovske pravice in lastnine. Leta 1006 je škofu Hovhanesu . uspelo ponovno vzpostaviti metropolitanske privilegije škofije.

Samostan Tatev je igral pomembno vlogo pri napredku kulturnega življenja Armenije. Stepanos Orbelian v svoji Zgodovini pokrajine Sjunik opisuje, kako je samostan služil kot skladišče tisočih dragocenih rokopisov, samostanskih in uradnih dokumentov in pogodb. Samostan je gostil univerzo, ki je delovala med letoma 1390 in 1434, kjer so se profesorji izobraževali in usposabljali ne le za provinco Sjunik, ampak tudi za druge regije Armenije.

V začetku 1340-ih se je Hovhan Vorotneci po padcu univerze v Gladzorju odpravil iz Vajota Dzor in prispel v Dzghook v Vorotnu, dobil blagoslov in pokroviteljstvo Orbelianov za napredovanje izobraževalnega sistema v Tatevu. Vorotneci je svoje izkušnje iz Gladzorja izkoristil za pregled izobraževalnega načrta ter za organizacijo sprejema in razvrščanja študentov in profesorjev. To je omogočilo, da se je Tatev v kratkem času preoblikoval v zaslužno univerzo [13] , ki je privabila študente iz različnih regij Velike Armenije in Kilikije.

Vorotneci je univerzo organiziral v tri oddelke - študij armenskih in tujih spisov, študij kiparskih umetnosti in nazadnje študij glasbe. Prva je vključevala študij humanističnih in družboslovnih znanosti, filozofije, govorništva, slovnice, literature in zgodovine. Drugi se je osredotočil na kaligrafijo, likovno oblikovanje knjig in slikanje miniatur in fresk. Tretji oddelek je vključeval starodavno glasbo in muzikologijo.

Po smrti Vorotnecija leta 1388 je Grigor Tatevaci prevzel vlogo opata. Uspelo mu je dvigniti standard Univerze na neslutene višine. V času svojega mandata je Tatev doživel svoje najbolj dinamično in ustvarjalno obdobje. Teme poučevanja so vključevale armensko literaturo, razlago in analizo Stare in Nove zaveze, dela svetih očetov, dela Platona, Aristotela, Filona Aleksandrijskega in Porfirija ter njihove analize.

Univerza v Tatevu je postala vodilno znanstveno in kulturno središče tistega časa. Njeni dosežki se zdijo še pomembnejši, če jih gledamo v kontekstu burnih političnih razmer in neskončnih opustošenj obdobja, ko je bila univerza občasno prisiljena na selitev, da bi se izognili pregonom in napadom sil. [14] [15]

Univerza Tatev je vodila prizadevanja za boj proti vplivu Fratres Unitores v Armeniji. Unitores je bil armenska veja dominikanskega reda in rezultat pobude papeža Janeza XXII. za razširitev vpliva Svetega sedeža v Rimu na Azijo in latinizacijo Velike Armenije [16] . Študenti univerze Tatev so se borili proti spreobračanju Unitores in si prizadevali zmanjšati njihov vpliv na armensko apostolsko cerkev in ljudi.

Po razpadu armenskega kraljestva Kilikija leta 1375 so tatevski učenjaki pod vodstvom Grigorja Tatevacija in nato njegovih privržencev, zlasti Tovma Mecobecija in Hovhanesa Hermonecija, igrali pomembno vlogo pri prepričevanju oblasti, da bi vrnili vrhovni patriarhalni prestol Armenske cerkve iz Sisa v Ečmiadzin, prvotni sedež svetega Gregorja Prosvetitelja. Prizadevanje je uspelo leta 1441 po sklepih nacionalnega kongresa Ečmiadzina, ki se je izkazal za enega najpomembnejših dogodkov v armenski zgodovini tistega stoletja.

Ugled univerze je začel upadati po smrti Grigorja Tatevacija. Kljub napornim prizadevanjem svojih novih voditeljev so politični in gospodarski pogoji, zapleteni z varnostnimi zapleti tega obdobja, povzročili, da je Tatev izgubil svoj sijaj in končno prenehal delovati po napadih Šahruh Mirze leta 1434.

Leta 1995 so bili samostani Tatev, Tatevi Anapat in sosednja območja doline Vorotan dodani na okvirni seznam svetovne dediščine pri Organizaciji Združenih narodov za izobraževanje, znanost in kulturo (Unesco). [17]

Fundacijo Tatev Revival, ustanovljena leta 2008, je ustanovil vplivni vlagatelj in podjetnik Ruben Vardanjan. Glavni cilj je obnova samostana Tatev. V ta cilj je vključena infrastruktura okoli samostana ob spoštovanju njegovega kulturnega, zgodovinskega in duhovnega pomena ter hkratni razvoj lokalnih skupnosti. Uradni začetek projekta je bil oktobra 2010 z zagonom najdaljše reverzibilne žičnice na svetu aerial tramway (dolga 5750 m), kar je del prizadevanja za oživitev turizma na tem območju. Ta povezava, imenovana Krila Tateva, povezuje vas Halidzor s samostanom Tatev. Projekt izvaja švicarski kompetenčni center skupine Doppelmayr / Garaventa in stane 25 milijonov ameriških dolarjev [18] . Žičnico Krila Tateva je v času obratovanja uporabljalo že več kot 640.000 turistov. V mestu Goris se je po uvedbi programa odprlo več kot 20 hotelov in penzionov. V bližnjih vaseh so domačini ustanovili 24 prenočišč. Ekološka nevladna organizacija Ark Ecok, ki temelji v Kapanu, trenutno gradi infrastrukturo za pohodniške poti za povezavo Kapana in samostana Tatev, da bi spodbudila ekoturizem v regiji Sjunik. [19]

Rekonstrukcija samostana Tatev Uredi

Oljarna je bila ena prvih arhitekturnih struktur, obnovljena leta 2010 kot del programa oživljanja Tatev in zdaj deluje v celoti. Od poletja 2016 obiskovalci vstopajo v kompleks samostana Tatev skozi obnovljeni severni vhod. V letu 2017 so bili postavljeni razstavni panoji v bližini vhoda, ki predstavljajo obnovitev samostana. Izboljšalo se je tudi sosednje ozemlje. Rekonstrukcijska dela na izviru vode so se začela konec leta 2015. Izvedene so bile raziskave, da bi ugotovili prvotno lokacijo vodnega vira in kako je bil zgrajen. Poleti 2016 so izvir obnovili na njegovi zgodovinski lokaciji v bližini severnega vhoda.

Obnova cerkve Surb Astvacacin v prvotnem videzu je bila vključena v prvo fazo obnove samostanskega kompleksa Tatev. Dela so se začela avgusta 2016 po odobritvi načrta obnove in so zdaj v zaključni fazi. Trenutno delavci končujejo obnovo kupole cerkve in svetlobnega bobna, na katerem počiva.


File history

Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current19:14, 26 November 20168,207 × 5,527 (9.17 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Picking up the right version now :)
19:08, 26 November 20168,207 × 5,527 (8.58 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Different sharpening approach
17:59, 26 November 20168,207 × 5,527 (8.58 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Adjustment contrast/sharpening
17:50, 26 November 20168,207 × 5,527 (7.87 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Defringing, selective sharpnening
09:04, 25 November 20168,207 × 5,436 (9.59 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Selective sharpening, slight ratio adjustment
08:10, 25 November 20168,040 × 5,415 (9.31 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) Crop, tilt
19:29, 24 October 20167,996 × 5,084 (8.93 MB) Poco a poco (talk | contribs) User created page with UploadWizard

You cannot overwrite this file.


Watch the video: Soorp Soorp, an Armenian Hymn by Isabel Beyrakdarian and the Tatev Choir (May 2022).