Texas


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Several Spanish expeditions contributed to the early exploration of Texas, beginning in 1519. Expeditions were sent out repeatedly in the next few years, but gold was never found.French explorers visited Texas in the 1680s, and La Salle claimed much of Texas as part of his huge claim of land for France. However, the border issue was resolved through treaty.Growing numbers of American settlers, who were at first welcomed, began to concern Mexico. Independence was declared and after a war that saw defeat at the Alamo and victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, Texas emerged as a Republic. After the Mexican war of 1846 to 1848, Mexico gave up all claims to Texas.Although Texas joined the Confederacy during the Civil War, there was considerable pro-Union sentiment in the state. The final battle of the Civil War was fought near the mouth of the Rio Grande by soldiers who were unaware that the war had ended a month earlier.During the Reconstruction of Texas, a legal controversy arose regarding the legal nature of the Texas secession. According to its supporters, the secession of Texas from the Union had been null and void from the very beginning, and consequently all laws derived from the secession and all public and private relations based on those laws were in turn null and void.The majority view rejected this extreme position, and the Republicans, the party of Reconstruction, were deeply divided for a period of three years. In the end, the latter group prevailed, albeit with certain compromises.Texas continued to grow rapidly. In the 1870s, cattle from Texas was driven to market along trails to Missouri and Kansas. Starting with the discovery of the Spindletop oil field in 1901, Texas` petroleum and natural gas industries grew to be the largest in the United States.Texas, in common with other Southern states, attempted to restrict the voting rights of blacks despite the provisions of Amendment XV giving them suffrage. Texas enacted a statute in 1923 which stated that, "in no event shall a Negro be eligible to participate in a Democratic Party primary election held in the state of Texas." In the one-party South, the Democratic primary was tantamount to the general election, so this rule effectively disenfranchised blacks in Texas.In 1927, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Nixon v. Herndon, with Oliver Wendell Holmes writing the opinion, that the Texas law violated the Fifteenth Amendment.


See also Andrews, Texas and Texas.



Comments:

  1. Moore

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  2. Yotaur

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  3. Taumuro

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