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Daedalus

Daedalus


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Daedalus is a figure from Greek mythology famous for his clever inventions and as the architect of the Minotaur's labyrinth on Crete. He is also the father of Icarus who flew too close to the sun on his artificial wings and so drowned in the Mediterranean. By the Roman period, Daedalus had acquired a long string of accomplishments and he came to represent, in general, the supreme master craftsman. The myths of Daedalus appear in the works of such noted writers as Homer, Herodotus, Ovid, and Virgil.

Origins

The ancient Greeks closely associated Daedalus (also spelt Daidalos) with the god Hephaistos, the genius craftsman of Mt. Olympus. It is possible that both figures have their origin in the Phoenician and Ugarit god Kothar, who was also considered a skilled artisan. In addition, it seems likely that highly valued artworks traded by the Phoenicians and reaching Greece, especially Crete, gave rise to myths concerning the fabled craftsmen of the Near East. Moreover, the very word daidalos signified 'finely-worked' and 'elaborate'.

Craftsman to King Minos

In Book 18 of the Iliad, Homer mentions that Daedalus lived at Knossos on Crete and designed an open-air dance floor there for King Minos' daughter Ariadne. He is credited in later sources as offering his considerable skills for other projects on Crete, specifically, designing the wooden bull that Minos' wife Pasiphae used to capture the affections of the bull she was in love with, building Minos' palace, and constructing the labyrinth where the offspring of that union, the half man-half bull Minotaur, dwelt. The same sources also report that Daedalus made the thread which Ariadne gave to the hero Theseus so that he might kill the Minotaur and escape from the labyrinth.

In Antiquity, Daedalus was credited as the creator of an ever-increasing number of fabulous inventions & artworks.

Daedalus & Icarus Flee Crete

Daedalus fell out of favour with King Minos, probably, and perhaps understandably, for the cow he had built Pasiphae, and he and his son Icarus were forced to flee for their lives. For this purpose, Daedalus constructed wings so that the pair might fly with ease from the wrathful king. Daedalus warned his son that for the wings to function best he should not fly too close to the sea lest the moisture render the feathers too heavy and useless, nor should he fly too high or the sun's heat would likewise damage the wings.

The young Icarus, alas, did not heed his father's advice and, on over-reaching himself and flying too close to the sun, the heat melted the wax which attached the wings to his arms. As a consequence, he plummeted into the sea and drowned in a tale that reminded of the folly of over-ambition. The tragedy was commemorated in the naming of the stretch of waters in that area the Icarian Sea, and then, when Hercules dragged the washed up body to an island, he re-named that place Icaria in honour of the fallen youth. The island still bears the name today and lies just south-west of Samos.

Daedalus on Sicily

Meanwhile, Daedalus had made it safely to Sicily where he was looked after by King Cocalus (also spelt Kokalos). In gratitude to Hercules, Daedalus sculpted a fantastically life-like statue of the hero. Unfortunately, this statue came to an unfortunate end one night, when Hercules himself stumbled across it and, convinced by its realism, thought it an enemy and smashed it to pieces. At the same time, King Minos had not simply allowed his talented architect to escape scot-free and actually pursued him all the way to Sicily but upon landing the daughters of Cocalus boiled him alive in a steam bath. Daedalus soon gave Cocalus reason to be glad for his arrival as he continued to produce such masterworks as a golden ram (or honeycomb) for the temple of Aphrodite on Mt. Eryx, a fortress at Acragas (Agrigento), and a steam bath at Selinus (Selinunte).

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The Legend of Daedalus Grows

From the 5th century BCE, Athens claimed the artist as one of their own, and Theseus was considered to have brought him back to Athens, replacing Crete as his place of birth and Sicily as his final destination. A whole family tree was devised so that such figures as Socrates claimed descent from Daedalus. The craftsman was given a nephew, Talos, the man of bronze who protected Crete, whom he killed, jealous of the younger man's invention of the saw, compass, and potter's wheel. This murder explained why Daedalus was exiled to Crete. Over the following centuries, Daedalus was credited with an ever-increasing number of fabulous inventions and artworks, from living statues to the magnificently decorated golden doors of the temple of Apollo at Cumae, Italy. He was even said to have invented the walking pose of early Greek statues, differentiating them from earlier and somewhat static Egyptian figures and paving the way for the more life-like poses of later Greek sculpture. The Romans even made Daedalus the patron of carpenters.

Daedalus in Art

Daedalus and Icarus appear in Greek art, especially pottery painting. The earliest Greek example may date to c. 560 BCE. The pair also appear on an Etruscan gold amulet (bulla) from c. 470 BCE. Daedalus' labyrinth was used as a symbol on Cretan coins and was a popular motif for Roman mosaic makers. In Greek drama, Daedalus was the subject of several satyr plays and comedies, including those by such notable playwrights as Sophocles and Aristophanes. The Roman writer Ovid gave the figure a new lease of life in the Roman era by describing Daedalus' adventures in his Metamorphosis (Bk. 8). Consequently, he became a favourite subject of Roman painters, notably seen in a 1st-century CE wall-painting of the House of the Vettii at Pompeii. Even in the modern world Daedalus' name lives on as a style of Archaic sculpture (Daedalic) which demonstrates the orientalizing features seen in early Greek sculpture.


RNAS Lee-on-Solent (HMS Daedalus)

Royal Naval Air Station Lee-on-Solent (HMS Daedalus) was one of the primary shore airfields of the Fleet Air Arm. First established as a seaplane base in 1917 during the First World War, it later became the main training establishment and administrative centre of the Fleet Air Arm. Situated near Lee-on-the-Solent in Hampshire, approximately four miles west of Portsmouth on the coast of the Solent at grid reference SU560019 , the establishment has now been closed down.


Necessity, Mother of Invention

Gazing at the horizon from their prison window, Daedalus mused. If only they could simply fly away like birds! The brilliant inventor dreamed up a bold scheme to liberate himself and his son from Minos's grasp. One of the most beloved myths of classical antiquity, the tale of Daedalus and Icarus soaring aloft on wings made of feathers and wax has been recounted by storytellers and illustrated by artists over the centuries. It has also given wings to dreams of human-powered flight ever since the tale was first told.

Daedalus making wings for himself and his son Icarus. Relief, Villa Albani, Rome, 1912. (Public Domain)

According to the myth, Daedalus and his son secretly collected heaps of bird feathers. Then Daedalus layered them according to size and shape. He used beeswax or glue--one of his inventions—to construct two pairs of wings for himself and his son.

Bronze Icarus fitted with wings. (Public Domain)

Daedalus warned Icarus to be careful not to fly too high, because the sun's heat might melt the wax. But the young boy was so enchanted by the amazing experience of flying, he soared too high. The sun's rays melted the wax, the feathers fluttered down, and Icarus plummeted into the Aegean Sea. The island where he fell is still called Icaria.


History

The Siege of Atlantis

After getting Atlantis' message about the coming Wraith attack, Stargate Command enacted a plan to defend Atlantis by sending a team of Marines led by Colonel Dillon Everett to Atlantis and then beaming a recently-found ZPM to the Daedalus. With the ZPM powering the Daedalus Asgard hyperdrive, the Daedalus could reach Atlantis within four days to aid in the battle. The Daedalus eventually arrives as Major John Sheppard is making a suicide run on one of the hive ships and beams him aboard after learning of his plight and getting him to decloak his Puddle Jumper. The Daedalus is then detected by Atlantis and informs the city of their presence, sending down the ZPM so that the Atlantis' shield can be powered up. After sending down the ZPM, the Daedalus engages the remaining hive ship, escorting Wraith cruisers and defending Wraith Darts. At Sheppard's suggestion, the crew fires Mark VIII tactical nuclear warheads at the hive ship, but they are intercepted by Wraith Darts. Instead, on Sheppard's suggestion, Dr. Lindsey Novak gets Asgard engineer Hermiod to beam a nuclear weapon directly onto the hive ship, destroying it. The remaining cruisers retreat into hyperspace before the Daedalus can destroy them, but the surviving Darts make a suicide run on Atlantis with the Daedalus unable to intercept. Luckily, Atlantis is able to raise its shield in time to protect against the attack.

Following the destruction of the Wraith fleet, the Daedalus remains in orbit until twelve more hive ships are detected approaching. At the suggestion of Sheppard, the Daedalus travels 50 light years away to launch a first strike on the incoming Wraith fleet when they emerge from hyperspace. Through beaming nuclear warheads, the Daedalus destroys two more hive ships before the Wraith jam the transport. The Daedalus engages the fleet directly, but after taking damage and having two cruisers move in to send boarding parties, flees into hyperspace. Reaching Atlantis shortly before the Wraith fleet, the Daedalus lands for repairs and the protection of the Atlantis shield. After a plan is created to fool the Wraith into thinking that Atlantis has been destroyed, all non-essential personnel, particularly the injured are sent aboard the Daedalus which beams a nuclear warhead above the Atlantis shield on command. The detonation fakes a self-destruct after which Atlantis cloaks. After a tense wait, the Daedalus sensors inform everyone that the Wraith fleet is breaking orbit and the trick worked. (SGA: "The Siege, Part 2", "The Siege, Part 3")

Two months later, the Daedalus ferries the Atlantis senior staff and new personnel to Atlantis. At the edge of the Pegasus galaxy, only a few days away from Atlantis, Doctors Monroe and Lindstrom are killed investigating a series of technical malfunctions and its discovered that the Daedalus was infected with a Wraith computer virus during the Daedalus engagement with them. After discovery, the virus broadcasts a distress signal to draw in the Wraith, forcing Sheppard to destroy the Daedalus long-range transmitter and consequently, Asgard sensor array. A full system shutdown and reboot from backups is performed, but the virus survives by uploading itself to the Daedalus F-302s and sends the ship on a course for the coronasphere of a nearby star in order to kill the crew and take full control of the ship. After Sheppard and Dr. Rodney McKay remove the navigation computers from all of the F-302s in the Daedalus fighter bay, a second shutdown is attempted and also fails. Finally, after Sheppard and McKay destroy a rogue F-302 controlled by the virus, a third system shutdown successfully eradicates it and the crew regains control of the Daedalus. The Daedalus then finishes ferrying the Atlantis expedition members back to the city. (SGA: "The Intruder")

Duties in Pegasus

The Daedalus fleeing from Project Arcturus

While returning to Earth from a routine resupply mission, Colonel Caldwell decided to divert the Daedalus to drop by and check on Sheppard and McKay's efforts to harness the ultimate power source. After the power source started to overload, Sheppard and McKay fled in a Puddle Jumper to escape through the Stargate before the explosion wiped out 5/6 of the solar system. However, the power source's weapon made a run on the Stargate very dangerous as Sheppard had to fly zigzag to avoid the weapon's blasts. As Sheppard tried to figure out a safe way through the Stargate, the Daedalus positioned itself between the blasts and his ship and Colonel Caldwell told Sheppard to get through the Stargate as the Daedalus ran interference for him. Thanks to the Daedalus, which suffered several hits from the weapon but no visible damage, Sheppard and McKay were able to make it through the Stargate to safety. Moments later, the Daedalus jumped to hyperspace just before the explosion. (SGA: "Trinity")

After Sheppard's team and Doctors Radek Zelenka and Miko Kusanagi disappear, the Daedalus is sent to search for them with Major Lorne and Doctor Beckett. Despite the crew's best efforts, they are unable to locate any sign of the team before the Quantum Mirror activates and spits out destroyed Wraith Darts and pieces of a destroyed scout ship. Novak then detects what Hermiod confirms is a Puddle Jumper just before the Mirror's singularity starts to detach and close which will destroy the Mirror. The Daedalus is unable to reach the Jumper which they speculate is on automatic pilot so at the urging of Hermiod, Caldwell has the Daedalus fly in closer and pull the Puddle Jumper into the 302 bay via tractor beam. As a hive ship arrives, the Daedalus escapes into hyperspace before the hive ship can scan it. The Daedalus then carries the injured team back to Atlantis. (SGA: "Entanglement")

When Sheppard is infected with the iratus bug retrovirus, the Daedalus is at Atlantis where Novak and Hermiod work on a diagnostic on the hyperdrive due to worries about the strain from using it so much to travel between galaxies. When a cure is successfully administered to Sheppard, Caldwell tells Weir that the Daedalus will be departing in less than a week. (SGA: "Conversion")

When Atlantis picked up a signal from the Ancient warship Aurora, the Daedalus is sent to carry Sheppard's team to the Aurora as its nowhere near any Stargates. Upon arrival, the Daedalus destroys a Wraith scout ship and stays in close proximity while Sheppard's team investigates the derelict ship. The Daedalus eventually detects two Wraith cruisers approaching but is prevented from destroying the Aurora by Sheppard's continuing presence on board. When Sheppard and McKay beam back, they have the Daedalus pull back to a safe distance as Sheppard has activated the Aurora's self-destruct. As the Daedalus monitors, the explosion destroys the Aurora and the Wraith cruisers. Before returning to Atlantis, the Daedalus crew is able to determine that the Wraith were not able to gain access to any of the information on the Aurora before it was destroyed. (SGA: "Aurora")

The Daedalus in battle

After the disappearance of Sheppard's team, the Daedalus crew pushed their engines to get to Atlantis a bit earlier than they normally would've arrived to lend a hand. By the time the Daedalus arrived, McKay had returned, though nearly incoherent from a massive dose of Wraith enzyme he had taken to escape. After recovering, McKay directed the Daedalus to Edowin where the hive ship Sheppard and the others are on is going to cull. Upon arrival, the Daedalus discovers two hive ships and is unable to make contact with Sheppard. Unwilling to risk information about Atlantis falling into the wrong hands, Caldwell has the Daedalus engage the hive ships in battle. The Daedalus once more proves to be outmatched, but Sheppard is able to get the Wraith to fire upon each other. After the Wraith destroy themselves, the crew finds no sign of survivors and search with no luck for Sheppard. (SGA: "The Hive")

Unknown to anyone, Colonel Caldwell was at some point taken as a host by a Goa'uld operative who rigged the Atlantis ZPM to overload and destroy the city when Atlantis dialed Earth next. This planned explosion was set to occur while the Daedalus was on a return trip to Earth, but the NID uncovered the plot and warned Stargate Command. Dr. Bill Lee was able to come up with a plan where a science team on P4M-399 broadcast a message to the Daedalus so they could pass a warning onto Atlantis. Hermiod was able to modify the Daedalus hyperdrive to reach speeds that would be dangerous after a period of time, but allowed the Daedalus to reach a point that it could broadcast a warning to Atlantis just barely in time to stop the destruction of the city. The Daedalus then maintained a position where it could relay messages between Earth and Atlantis before Weir recalled the ship, suspecting the saboteur might be on the Daedalus crew. After the city's ZPM started to overload, the Daedalus was enlisted to take most of the Atlantis personnel and the Athosians to the Light Bugs' Planet for safety. Lt. Laura Cadman eventually identified Caldwell as the saboteur and he was beamed to the Atlantis conference room where his possession by a Goa'uld was uncovered. The threat was averted when Sheppard used a taser to give Caldwell back control long enough to give them the needed access code to avert the overload. With the threat ended, Hermiod used the Daedalus transporter to extract the Goa'uld from Caldwell. (SGA: "Critical Mass")

During one of the Daedalus trips to Atlantis, the ship was near a Jovian planet's atmosphere testing new hydrogen ram scoop technology when it was diverted to the planet Halcyon where Sheppard and his team were attempting to destroy a Wraith hive ship. When the Daedalus arrived, McKay realized the shape on the hive ship's sensors was wrong to be another Wraith ship and realized it to be the Daedalus. However, the Daedalus came in primed for battle and the Wraith Scar activated a self-destruct program in the hopes of destroying the Daedalus as well as his ship. As the self-destruct began, McKay tried to reach the Daedalus and warn them off to no avail. The arrival of the Daedalus sparked fear in the locals who believed it to be another Wraith ship before Caldwell contacted Doctor Beckett to let him know it was them and they had survived the explosion. The Daedalus had been able to beam out Sheppard's team and the Halcyonites before the explosion, but the explosion was powerful enough to flip the Daedalus over, blow out the shields in a single surge of power, cause numerous hull breaches and injuries, damage many systems and almost destroy the ship. Colonel Caldwell commented that they needed to thank General Hank Landry for insisting on shield upgrades which had saved the ship. Afterwards, the Daedalus off-loaded supplies meant for Atlantis to help the people of Halcyon and some of the ship's engineers began helping the locals with plans for new irrigation systems, water supplies and similar things to aid in improving the Halcyonites' standard of living. (SGA: "Halcyon")

Shortly after the destruction of the Prometheus in the Battle of Tegalus, the SGC loses contact with the people from Tegalus. In order to find out what happened, the Daedalus is diverted to the planet on its way back from Atlantis. The Daedalus discovers that the Rand Protectorate and Caledonian Federation went to war after SG-1 left and apparently destroyed each other, leaving behind a devastated planet with the Stargate presumably buried in the rubble. (SG1: "Ethon")

On a trip not long after the Goa'uld attempt to destroy Atlantis was averted, Hermiod began effecting repairs to the Daedalus hyperdrive that required the ship to go on a loop of the solar system. During this time, Caldwell beams down to Atlantis to try to repair the relationships damaged by the Goa'uld. When Thalan knocks out the city's main power and thus primary systems, Caldwell suggests calling in the Daedalus to use its sensors to locate Thalan and Phoebus. However, subspace communications are also down so they are unable to reach the Daedalus for help. (SGA: "The Long Goodbye")

The Daedalus orbits Taranis

After losing contact with Sheppard's team on the planet Taranis that is experiencing a supervolcano eruption, Weir dispatches the Daedalus which is on its way back from Earth to help. Arriving in orbit, the Daedalus makes contact with Sheppard who requests that the ship be used to ferry the Taranians to Atlantis. While Caldwell agrees, the Daedalus will require four trips with a 12-hour time for each trip. In the first trip, the Daedalus transports several hundred refugees, including the most seriously wounded. Upon return to the planet, the Daedalus finds the supervolcano on the verge of eruption and beams out a small group of life signs, the only life signs they can detect on the planet. Amongst the group is Ronon and Teyla who were cut off from the rest of the team who are trying to repair the Orion and were on the verge of suffocation. The Daedalus maintains orbit around Taranis and monitors the eruption. Moments after the eruption happens, the Orion emerges from hyperspace in front of the Daedalus and Sheppard informs the relieved crew that they have everybody on board. The Daedalus then ferries all of the people back to Atlantis. (SGA: "Inferno")

Alliance with the Wraith

Three weeks later, in preparation for a coming hive ship, the Daedalus took a position just outside of Atlantis' sensor range ready to make a hyperspace jump to Atlantis to fight if needed with the Orion nearby, marginally ready to do the same. After the hive ship arrives, everyone is surprised when Michael contacts Atlantis, asking to talk. The team decides to use the Daedalus as a relay to communicate with Michael to prevent being easily tracked. Later, when the alliance with the Wraith is formed, the Daedalus is allowed to land at Atlantis without incident and McKay and Hermiod start work on breaking the Wraith jamming code by attempting to use the Daedalus to beam an innocuous canister to the hive ship while its jamming them. The Daedalus later monitors the first test of the weaponized Iratus bug retrovirus and engages a hive ship in battle briefly to give the allied hive ship time to escape to hyperspace. Later, as part of a new strategy, the Daedalus was to fly extremely close to the allied hive ship in order to beam the retrovirus to a different hive ship. Upon exiting hyperspace, the Daedalus came under fire from two hive ships, one of which was the "friendly" before the ship could raise shields. During the following battle, the Daedalus was heavily outgunned and sustained heavy damage, particularly as it took fire with its shields down. An F-302 attack led by Sheppard was launched to take out the hive ships hyperdrives with no luck. As the Daedalus recalled fighters and prepared to flee, the hive ships suddenly jumped to hyperspace. Confused and finding no sign of Sheppard, Caldwell orders the Daedalus to return to Atlantis. (SGA: "Allies")

The Daedalus in battle

Following the disastrous battle, the Daedalus returns to Atlantis where its quickly realized that the hive ships are heading for Earth. With Earth unable to send ships of its own to counter the threat, Doctor Elizabeth Weir decides to redeploy the Daedalus accompanied by the Orion to stop the hive ships before they can get to Earth. Doctor Radek Zelenka is able to determine where the hive ships will drop out of hyperspace in the void between two galaxies, but Colonel Caldwell is reluctant to commit the Daedalus as the ship has suffered severe damage and is unlikely to survive another battle. Caldwell eventually agrees and after emergency repairs are effected, the Daedalus and the Orion launch with Hermiod transferring all non-essential power to the shield so it will hold longer and Caldwell having all of the Daedalus Mark III tactical nuclear warheads loaded for immediate firing.

Upon exiting hyperspace, the Daedalus opens fire on the "friendly" hive ship with a single missile making it through the screening Wraith Darts, causing serious damage to the ship. In the battle that follows, the Daedalus continues to exchange fire with one of the hive ships while the Orion arrives and destroys the other with a drone weapon barrage. Due to the Orion sacrificing shields to fire, the Daedalus is forced to beam the crew aboard before the Orion is destroyed and then Sheppard's team and Michael when they arrive in a stolen Wraith scout ship. Though Michael has disabled the hive ship's jamming code, the Daedalus is out of nuclear weapons and instead fires its railguns into the hive ship's Dart Bay at point-blank range, disabling the hive ship. However, the Daedalus shield is depleted and the ship takes heavy damage, knocking out life support. With not enough time to repair life support before the crew suffocates, the Daedalus sends the retrovirus gas over to the hive ship, turning the crew into Human-form Wraith and allowing the Daedalus crew to hijack the hive ship. (SGA: "No Man's Land")

Following the capture of the hive ship, the Daedalus crew is able to repair life support, but hyperdrive remains off-line. After the hive ship's hyperdrive is repaired, the Daedalus is carried back to Atlantis in its Dart Bay. Upon arrival, the Daedalus disembarks from the hive ship and lands at Atlantis to begin extensive repairs to the severely damaged ship. After its discovered that a second Wraith hive ship is heading towards M8G-352 where the Human-form Wraith have been left, the idea of sending the Daedalus is discussed, but Weir tells the Atlantis command staff that the Daedalus hyperdrive still needs another day before it will be repaired. Instead, Sheppard's team takes the captured hive ship to the planet. Once Hermiod reluctantly confirms that the Daedalus is capable of hyperspace travel once more, Colonel Caldwell decides to take the ship to M8G-352 in case Sheppard and his team need help. Upon arrival at the planet, the Daedalus finds only a debris field from the destruction of the captured hive ship and no life signs in the field or on the planet. To the crew's relief, Sheppard and his team are revealed to have escaped in a cloaked Puddle Jumper. The team is similarly relieved to see the Daedalus as they had no way home without a starship. The Daedalus then ferries Sheppard's team back to Atlantis. (SGA: "Misbegotten")

After the end of the alliance with the Wraith, the Daedalus is forced to undergo repairs for quite some time, something Sheppard reminds McKay of due to McKay's enthusiasm to harvest Stargates for the McKay/Carter Intergalactic Gate Bridge. (SGA: "Irresistible")

Not long after the disastrous alliance with the Wraith, the Daedalus is sent to investigate a hive ship floating in the void between the Pegasus and Milky Way galaxies in order to determine if the stolen hyperdrive technology and location of Earth was spread from Michael's hive ship to other Wraith ships. The Daedalus stands off a ways away while Sheppard's team and Hermiod, assigned to them for the mission on Thor's orders, take a Puddle Jumper to the ship. Due to the Puddle Jumper taking damage, the team is forced to call the Daedalus to get them out and is able to determine that the hive ship is a third member of Michael's alliance that had its hyperdrive modifications break down. Coming under attack from a weird organism, Sheppard's team calls the Daedalus to beam them out, but the ship is unable to do so due to the hive ship's jamming code. Using his modified communications system, Hermiod is able to disable the jamming code and the Daedalus beams the team out just in time. At Caldwell's request, as the Daedalus comes under attack by the hive ship, Hermiod uses the opportunity to destroy the hive ship by beaming a nuclear warhead on board.

Shortly after the destruction of the hive ship, Hermiod determines that the Daedalus crew has been infected by the organism he comes to call Fenrir which takes control of all but Sheppard and McKay who are only carriers. After locking out the bridge controls from engineering, Hermiod, Sheppard and McKay beam down to a derelict city-ship in a nearby asteroid and then back to the Daedalus with information on Fenrir. Hermiod is ultimately able to convince Fenrir to release the crew in exchange for them helping it to find a new home. (SGA: "Hermiod's Last Mission")

Further duties

After Ronon Dex was captured by the Wraith and made a Runner once more, the repaired Daedalus was enlisted to transport Sheppard, Teyla, McKay and Beckett to Sateda to rescue him as the Wraith had disabled Sateda's Stargate. Though Colonel Caldwell was reluctant due to the likelihood of a hive ship being in orbit and the Daedalus not faring well against them in the ship's previous engagements, he ultimately agreed to take them close enough to Sateda to go the rest of the way in a Puddle Jumper. After Ronon's rescue, the Daedalus carries the team back to Atlantis. (SGA: "Sateda")

While being mind-probed by the Replicators, Sheppard imagines Atlantis suffering a Wraith attack and asks about the Daedalus. In the simulated world, based on his own concept of the world around him, Sheppard is told that the Daedalus is weeks away and couldn't handle the seven hive ships that have appeared. (SGA: "Progeny")

When McKay attempts to convince his sister Jeannie Miller to help with his calculations for the matter bridge, the Daedalus is in Earth orbit. McKay takes advantage of this by triggering a locator beacon to have himself and Jeannie beamed to the Daedalus in order to help convince Jeannie to help him. After Jeannie agrees, the Daedalus departs on its next trip to Atlantis, carrying McKay and Jeannie who utilize the time to work on their math with the help of Hermiod. When the matter bridge is going to be collapsed, Rod tells McKay that he has decided to have the Daedalus, still in Atlantis orbit, beam him into the energy stream on McKay's command so he can use it to return to his own universe. On Rod's signal, Hermiod beams Rod out of Atlantis and then into the energy stream on McKay's signal. Following the conclusion of the project, the Daedalus returns Jeannie to Earth due to Atlantis' ZPM being depleted collapsing the matter bridge. (SGA: "McKay and Mrs. Miller")

After losing contact with Sheppard's team on M1B-129, Weir questions Doctor Radek Zelenka about the idea of sending the Daedalus to check on them. Zelenka tells her that the Daedalus is still on its way back from Earth and is a day or two away, rendering it an impossible option. Later, after Sheppard and Teyla shut down the mind manipulator, they are able to make contact with Atlantis and Weir redirects the Daedalus to rescue them as the planet's DHD has been destroyed. Weir also sends through the supplies they will need until the Daedalus arrives by nightfall on M1B-129. (SGA: "Phantoms")

When the McKay/Carter Intergalactic Gate Bridge is completed, the Daedalus is sent to the unfinished Midway Station in the void between the Milky Way and Pegasus galaxies to observe the first test. After arriving, the Daedalus sensors detect a weird echo, but the test proceeds successfully, with Sheppard using the Gate Bridge to travel from Atlantis to Earth in a Puddle Jumper upon which the Daedalus gets confirmation that Sheppard had reached Earth. After Sheppard makes it through to Earth, McKay realizes that the weird echo the Daedalus is picking up is an object traveling at .999% of the speed of light. After Sheppard returns, a plan is made where the Daedalus uses its hyperdrive to get ahead of the object and then maxes out the sublight engines to get a sensor scan. The Daedalus sensors determines the object to be an Ancient Aurora-class battleship, the Tria and they are contacted by Captain Helia. The Daedalus ferries the Ancient survivors back to Atlantis and after the expedition is kicked out of the city, carries most of their equipment back to Earth. (SGA: "The Return, Part 1")

Six weeks after the expedition is kicked out of Atlantis, the city is taken over by the Asurans. Following the standing orders of Major General Jack O'Neill, General Hank Landry sends the Daedalus to destroy the city with a nuclear warhead. Landry questions the Atlantis senior staff for the best location for the Daedalus to deploy the warhead, telling them the Daedalus will reach Atlantis in a little under four days. Despite the senior staff, Ronon and Teyla undertaking a mission to retake the city, Landry decides to go ahead with the destruction of the city and orders the Daedalus, waiting at the Midway Station to go ahead. When their original plan to destroy the Asurans fails, the team comes up with a new plan utilizing the Daedalus indirectly. As part of the plan, the team tricks the Asurans into thinking that they intend to destroy the Atlantis shield emitters so that when the Daedalus arrives, the ship can destroy the city. The Asurans fall for the trick and when they detect the Daedalus on approach, raise the shield. Unknown to them, the team has modified the shields to emit an anti-Replicator wave that destroys all of the Asurans. Having retaken Atlantis, the team then contacts the Daedalus to call off the attack. While Caldwell is reluctant to believe them, he agrees to send down a team of Marines to check out their story first. Once Atlantis is confirmed under human control once more, the Daedalus stands down. (SGA: "The Return, Part 1", "The Return, Part 2")

The Daedalus intercepts a massive Coronal mass ejection from the Lantean Star using a Zero Point Module

During the time the Flagisallus are negatively effecting the Atlantis expedition, the Daedalus arrives in orbit on one of its scheduled visits. However, Weir warns the crew not to beam down and informs Caldwell of the situation. Though Caldwell advocates killing the Flagisallus, Weir refuses. The Daedalus later takes on patients from the Atlantis infirmary, filling up the ship's infirmary, but it does little good due to the number of new patients coming in. After its discovered that a massive coronal mass ejection is coming that will wipe out all life on Lantea, Sheppard comes up with a plan to use the Daedalus to deflect the blast wave. As part of Sheppard's plan, the Daedalus positions itself dangerously close to the sun with a ZPM boosting the Daedalus shields. As a result, when the CME erupts from the sun, it strikes the Daedalus almost immediately and is deflected around the ship with the ship acting like an umbrella. While the ZPM boosted shields protect the Daedalus from the CME itself, the heat build up behind the shield causes the Daedalus to suffer some burned off hull plating, failed bow sensors and hull breaches in the 302 bay and Deck Four, the latter of which causes the ship to vent atmosphere. However, the CME subsides before the ship can take serious damage and Lantea is saved as a result. (SGA: "Echoes")

As part of a plan conceived by Doctor Daniel Jackson to destroy the Ori, the Stargate in the Pegasus Galaxy blocking the Supergate needs to be destroyed. To accomplish this, its decided that the Daedalus will be used to beam a Mark IX nuclear warhead behind the Stargate after SG-1 determines that Daniel's intel is correct and is not a trap by Adria to reopen the Supergate and let the Ori fleet through. After taking control of the Ori warship with Sangraal on it, Daniel has Major General Jack O'Neill signal the Daedalus from the Odyssey through the Supergate connection. On O'Neill's signal, the Daedalus destroys the Stargate, allowing Daniel to send the Ori warship and Sangraal through to the Alteran Home Galaxy and destroy the Ori. (SG1: "The Shroud", "The Ark of Truth")

Worried about the situation on M4D-058, Weir diverts the Daedalus to the planet on the ship's way back to Earth. After seeing that Geldar and Hallona are on the verge of war, Caldwell grows worried about Sheppard's team and has the Daedalus beam them out. However, Sheppard concocts a plan to avert the impending war and convinces Caldwell to use the Daedalus to help. As part of the plan, McKay hacks into the portal computer terminals on the planet and has the Daedalus broadcast a doomsday scenario for each country to the terminals. In order to add an element of realism, the Daedalus fires pinpoint shots at locations in each country, causing harmless explosions that make it seem like they are under attack during the war they believe they are fighting. The plan works and the Geldaran and Hallonan leaders return to the negotiating table. (SGA: "The Game")

After barely escaping Michael Kenmore on the Taranian settlement, Sheppard asks if the Daedalus is back yet and is informed that the ship is still a few days out. Sheppard requests that the Daedalus be diverted to the settlement in an attempt to destroy Michael and his Bug People, but the Daedalus finds no life signs on the planet and no sign of Michael or his Bug People in the settlement. The Daedalus recovers the DHD control crystals in a vain hope of learning where Michael dialed out to so he can be found and killed. (SGA: "Vengeance")

Following the Asuran invasion of Atlantis, the Daedalus is sent to make regular reconnaissance flybys of Asuras. The Daedalus eventually takes images showing that the Replicators are building ships, presumably for an attack on Earth. In response, a plan is developed to use the Apollo to destroy the ships before they can be launched. (SGA: "First Strike")

When Jeannie Miller is kidnapped by Henry Wallace, the Daedalus is in Earth orbit and is employed to beam Sheppard, Ronon, McKay and NID Agent Malcolm Barrett to Vancouver, Canada where Jeannie lives. Later, after McKay is rescued, he asks if the Daedalus is still in orbit as they need to get Jeannie to the SGC immediately. At Sheppard's request, the Daedalus beams Sheppard, Ronon, McKay and Jeannie to the SGC. (SGA: "Miller's Crossing")

Defeating the Replicators

The Daedalus and Apollo arrive in Pegasus to combat the Asurans

After the Replicators start attacking human worlds as a tactic in their war with the Wraith, the Daedalus and the Apollo are both sent to Atlantis to use the tracking system Atlantis has recently received capable of tracking all of the Replicator Aurora-class battleships and their new Asgard plasma beam weapons to stop the Replicators once and for all. After Doctor Rodney McKay is unable to come up with a way to stop the Replicators in the time that he is allotted, the Daedalus and the Apollo are sent to ambush a Replicator ship that is about to destroy a human world with Colonel Samantha Carter manning one of the Daedalus control consoles. Once the Replicator ship exits hyperspace, the Daedalus and the Apollo open fire with their beam weapons, destroying it before it can react to their attack. Following the first successful attack, the two 304s destroy a second Replicator ship together before splitting up to cover more ground. Over the next week, the Daedalus is able to destroy three more Replicator ships on its own before returning to Atlantis for a resupply. While there, its learned that the Replicators are pulling back to their homeworld, ending the Daedalus and Apollo's campaign against them.

After McKay is able to come up with a plan to destroy the Replicators by fusing them together, the Daedalus and the Apollo join a combined fleet made up of the two 304s, the Traveler Aurora-class battleship, seven Wraith hive ships and six Traveler generational ships to attack Asuras during which the Daedalus acts as the fleet's flagship. Upon arrival at Asuras, either the Daedalus or the Apollo severely damages and possibly destroys a Replicator warship with its railguns before the ship can raise its shields. The Daedalus fares well in the battle, apparently suffering minimal damage and inflicting great damage upon the Replicator fleet in return, sending its F-302s to target the Replicator hyperdrives alongside the Wraith Darts and the Apollo's F-302s.. At one point, as a Replicator ship is about to destroy Todd's hive ship, the Daedalus intervenes to save the hive ship by destroying the Replicator ship with two shots from its beam weapons. After the Replicator mass collapses the subterranean power grid, Carter detects that Asuras is rich in neutronium with the Daedalus sensors, causing McKay to come up with a plan that sinks the mass to the planet's core where it will be imploded, destroying the Replicators and Asuras. After McKay implements his plan, the Daedalus beams his team out and leads the surviving ships from the allied fleet into hyperspace moments before Asuras and the Replicators are destroyed. (SGA: "Be All My Sins Remember'd")

A week after the Battle of Asuras, Todd's derelict hive ship is discovered with a map leading to a secret Wraith facility. Sheppard suggests waiting for the Daedalus to return to go after the facility, but Teyla urges not waiting due to the head start the Wraith have on them. Reluctantly, Sheppard agrees not to wait for the Daedalus and takes the hive ship after the Wraith facility instead. (SGA: "Spoils of War")

Destruction of Midway

After realizing that the Wraith are attacking the Midway Station, Colonel Samantha Carter tells Lt. Colonel John Sheppard and Doctor Rodney McKay that the Daedalus is on Earth and thus unavailable to help so they need to find a way to reconnect to the McKay/Carter Intergalactic Gate Bridge and reach Midway.

Following the battle, the SGC is unable to contact Midway by Stargate. The Daedalus departs for Atlantis with Ronon Dex on board shortly thereafter and is sent to check out Midway Station on the way back to Atlantis. Roughly two weeks after the battle, the Daedalus reaches Midway to find it destroyed and a Puddle Jumper adrift nearby. Unable to reach the Puddle Jumper on the radio as Sheppard is sleeping, the Daedalus scoops up the Puddle Jumper into its 302 Bay. After the survivors of Midway are safely aboard, the Daedalus returns them to Atlantis. (SGA: "Midway")

Michael's crusade

The Daedalus fires at Michael

Following the kidnapping of Teyla Emmagan by the Human-Wraith Hybrid known as Michael, the Atlantis expedition gets a possible location for her from Todd and the Daedalus is sent to pick up Lt. Colonel John Sheppard and Major Evan Lorne's team for a rescue mission. Arriving in orbit of the planet, the Daedalus is unable to detect Teyla's subcutaneous locator beacon, so the two teams are beamed into the facility to rescue Teyla "the old fashioned way." While the teams are inside the facility, Michael's cruiser emerges from hyperspace and fires on the Daedalus which returns fire with its railguns. The Daedalus proves to be more than a match for the Wraith cruiser and inflicts heavy damage before Sheppard warns the crew not to destroy the ship as Teyla may be on board. As the Daedalus aims to cripple Michael's cruiser, it makes a run for hyperspace. Despite the Daedalus attempting to use its Asgard plasma beam weapons to disable the cruiser's hyperdrive, Michael is able to escape into hyperspace with Teyla, leaving the Daedalus behind. (SGA: "The Kindred, Part 1")

The Daedalus destroys Michael's cruiser

After Sheppard returns from an alternate timeline with the location of Teyla, the Daedalus is sent to the planet M2S-445 while Atlantis is still checking out his story. Around three hours after Michael's base implodes due to a booby trap, the Daedalus arrives in orbit of M2S-445 where the ship detects Michael's cruiser in orbit and raises shields. While the cruiser fires on the Daedalus, the shields hold and Colonel Samantha Carter contacts the ship to warn the crew not to destroy Michael's cruiser as Teyla is on board. Unable to damage the Daedalus, Michael once again makes a run for hyperspace, but this time, the Daedalus is able to disable his hyperdrive with the ship's Asgard plasma beam weapons before he can escape. On Carter's request, the Daedalus scans the planet and locates Sheppard and Ronon's transmitters. At Carter's prompting, Caldwell reluctantly drops the Daedalus shields to beam Sheppard and Ronon aboard while allowing Carter's team to land their Puddle Jumpers in the Daedalus 302 Bay at the same time. However, during this brief time the shields are down, the Daedalus takes several direct hits and loses sublight engines, hyperdrive and Asgard weapons and takes damage to life support. McKay is eventually able to mostly restore life support and Carter mostly repairs sublight engines, but the Daedalus shields are severely taxed by the enemy fire so the ship launches an F-302 attack to disable the cruiser's main weapons and provide a diversion so that Sheppard can lead a rescue team aboard.

A short time later, the Daedalus is contacted by a Wraith Dart piloted by Sheppard after the team's Puddle Jumper was stolen. After receiving confirmation that Sheppard has the team, Teyla and her baby, the repaired Daedalus destroys Michael's cruiser with its plasma beam weapons, presumably killing Michael. (SGA: "The Last Man", "Search and Rescue")

Additional duties and Hijack

About a month after the Battle of M2S-445, the Daedalus brought Richard Woolsey to Atlantis to take command of the city. It also brought a new mahogany conference table with Woolsey to replace the old Atlantis conference table on his request. (SGA: "The Seed")

After Ronon Dex is kidnapped by Tyre, the Daedalus is sent to scan the planet he was kidnapped on for his subcutaneous locator beacon. However, the Daedalus finds no sign of the transmitter, proving that Ronon is no longer on the planet. (SGA: "Broken Ties")

While the Daedalus is in orbit over Atlantis over a month after Teyla's rescue, Major Kevin Marks offers both Teyla and Ronon preliminary training on the Daedalus systems. Though Ronon refuses as he was "busy", Teyla takes Marks up on his offer and gains a limited knowledge of how to use the ship's systems as a result.

When an alternate reality Daedalus appears over Atlantis, it causes great confusion amongst the expedition as the Daedalus is supposed to be well on its way back to Earth. As the Atlantis Reconnaissance 1 heads out in a Puddle Jumper to investigate the alternate Daedalus, Chuck informs them that he has gotten confirmation from the SGC that the Daedalus is in the Milky Way, on course and on schedule and expected to reach Earth within two days. When an alternate Sheppard questions Sheppard on the presence of the alternate Daedalus in his reality, Sheppard tells him that its not their Daedalus either but they are just borrowing it, causing great confusion in his alternate self. (SGA: "The Daedalus Variations")

After McKay is infected with Second Childhood, the Daedalus is sent to deliver Jeannie Miller to Atlantis to say goodbye to her brother. Due to his deteriorating condition causing fear that the Daedalus wouldn't arrive in time, the ship instead drops Jeannie off at the first available Pegasus Stargate so she can reach Atlantis much faster. (SGA: "The Shrine")

When the team disappears on Admah and they can't connect with the Stargate again, Woolsey contacts the Daedalus to rescue them. However, the Daedalus crew determines they won't reach Admah in time to save the team. Instead, Woolsey diverts the Daedalus to M3T-842 where he sent Major Lorne's team after they received a message from McKay that Sheppard's team will make their way there. The Daedalus detects a hive ship landed on the planet and informs Woolsey they can't beam the team out as a result, but instead offers to lay down covering fire for a brief time. When Sheppard's team arrives, they find Lorne's team under attack by the Wraith. As the two teams attempt to retreat through the Stargate, McKay and Sheppard get cut-off before the Daedalus opens fire from orbit, driving the Wraith back and allowing them to escape through the Stargate. The Daedalus then flees the planet before the Wraith can send serious pursuit after it. Following the resolution of the crisis, the Daedalus broadcasts the destruction of Admah to Atlantis. (SGA: "Brimstone")

The Daedalus with Todd's Hive ship

When Doctor Daniel Jackson travels to Atlantis to search for Janus' secret lab, he is delivered by the Daedalus. Shortly thereafter, as part of a plan to implement the Wraith gene therapy, the Daedalus is sent to rendezvous with Todd's hive ship and two of his Wraith cruisers to begin the treatment. A Wraith delegation boards the Daedalus where Keller and Todd work on perfecting the gene therapy. However, while the work continues, Todd's cruisers are needed to help another hive ship and upon entering hyperspace, to the shock of the Wraith and the Daedalus crew, the cruisers are destroyed. Todd accuses the confused Daedalus crew of betraying him and then uses two Wraith stun rods to render the bridge crew unconscious. With the bridge under his control, Todd begins beaming over Wraith warriors to take control of the ship. (SGA: "First Contact")

Once in control of the Daedalus, Todd takes the ship to within communications range of Atlantis and demands the location of the Attero device so that he can destroy it and end the threat it represents, threatening to feed on a member of the Daedalus crew every minute until Sheppard complies starting with Woolsey. Sheppard reluctantly broadcasts the coordinates to M6H-987, the planet that they had tracked the aliens that stole the Attero device control key to.

En route to M6H-987, Ronon Dex destroys several crystal trays in the Daedalus engineering section, disabling the ship's Asgard hyperdrive shields and weapons. To buy Ronon time to rescue the crew, Keller surrenders herself to Todd, claiming that she sabotaged the ship. The Wraith are eventually able to get the hyperdrive back online, but the weapons are damaged beyond repair. Needing to destroy the Attero device no matter what, Todd resumes course to M6H-987.

Keller and the Daedalus crew is rescued by Ronon and arrive on the bridge to discover that the Wraith have locked them out of the ship's systems and have retreated to the Wraith scout ship landed in the Daedalus 302 Bay. Upon emerging from hyperspace at M6H-987, the Daedalus is contacted by Sheppard aboard Katana Labrea's ship who asks for the help of the Daedalus in fighting the Vanir spaceships orbiting the planet. However, the Daedalus crew still has no control over the ship's flight systems and discover that a preprogramed subroutine has been activated that has locked the ship into a collision course with Janus' outpost. Once the collision course has been locked, the Wraith depart in their scout ship.

The Daedalus enters M6H-987's atmosphere

As Marks struggles to regain control of the Daedalus, the ship enters M6H-987's atmosphere headed directly for the outpost and burning off several hull plates due to the Daedalus shields being down. Before the ship can be destroyed, Sheppard opens a hyperspace window in front of it and carries the Daedalus safely to the other side of the planet where Marks finally regains control of the ship and Sheppard destroys a Vanir ship that attacks the two vessels there. With the Daedalus back under control, the crew beams aboard McKay and Jackson who had been kidnapped by the Vanir and Sheppard uses the Traveler generational ship's weapons to destroy the facility.

After the end of the threat from the Attero device, the Daedalus collects a Stargate from the derelict McKay/Carter Intergalactic Gate Bridge to replace the destroyed Atlantis Stargate. (SGA: "The Lost Tribe")

Upon receiving a video message from Todd, McKay recognizes the encryption as the same one they use on the Daedalus. In Todd's message, he reveals he stole the formula for Keller's gene therapy while he had control of the Daedalus. At the same time, the expedition is reluctant to trust or help Todd due to his actions aboard the Daedalus the last time they worked together. (SGA: "Infection")

While attempting to find the body-switched Keller, Teyla mentions that they couldn't have used the Daedalus to reach the planet she is on as the ship is back on Earth. (SGA: "Identity")

Super-hive

The Daedalus opens fire

In 2009, Todd contacted Atlantis and revealed that his underling mutinied and managed to use several Zero Point Modules to power a formidable new super-hive. He urged Richard Woolsey to attack and destroy it before it became a threat to Atlantis. Not being willing to risk Todd lying to them, Woolsey dispatched the Daedalus with Sheppard's team on board to investigate and destroy the hive ship.

At Sheppard's request, the Daedalus dropped out of hyperspace early while the Atlantis Reconnaissance 1 took a Puddle Jumper to investigate under cloak before sending in the Daedalus to finish the job. The team reported to the Daedalus of the upgrades McKay detected before coming under attack by the super-hive. Sheppard quickly alerted the Daedalus they needed help and the Daedalus arrived in time to block the hive ship's shots at the Puddle Jumper, buying time for McKay to repair the control systems. With the shields holding, Caldwell ordered Major Kevin Marks to open fire on the hive ship. The Daedalus Asgard plasma beam weapons did minimal damage to the hive ship. Before the Daedalus could open fire with missiles, the super-hive launched about a dozen shots at the 304. The blasts quickly depleted the Daedalus Asgard shield and knocked out most major systems, including hyperdrive while causing heavy damage on all decks. To the crew's surprise, the super-hive made a sudden jump into hyperspace rather than finishing the Daedalus off.

In the aftermath of the battle, Doctor Peter Kavanagh detected a weak subspace transmission from an alternate reality with the coordinates of Earth. Realizing the super-hive's next destination, McKay calculated where it would next drop out of hyperspace and broadcast a message to Atlantis once the Daedalus subspace communications were back online asking that Atlantis have the SGC send the Apollo and the Sun Tzu to stop the Wraith ship. With the hyperdrive control system destroyed, the Daedalus had to undergo days to weeks of repairs before a patch was able to be installed to return the ship to Atlantis. (SGA: "Enemy at the Gate")

War with Queen Death

After the IOA decided not to allow Atlantis to go back to Pegasus, it was decided that the Daedalus and the George Hammond would instead be going in shifts to battle the Wraith. Once the IOA changes their minds, the Daedalus follows close behind Atlantis though it is nearly two weeks slower, first seeing the city off from a lower orbit with the George Hammond.

After Atlantis is forced to land on the frozen planet due to a hyperdrive malfunction, they contact Earth to inform them of where to divert the Daedalus to since the crew expects them to be going back to Lantea. The Daedalus is able to reach the planet thirteen days after leaving Earth, with Colonel Caldwell stating that the new trip takes twelve days rather than eighteen though the ship took a day longer due to the crew having to change course. The Daedalus brings Atlantis the priority medical supplies they needed, but is unable to bring the new MANPAD systems due to a lack of room. The crew is allowed to take leave on Atlantis while the Daedalus is landed there and the ship departs soon afterwards for Earth. Though Caldwell offers to have the Daedalus stay for a while due to a recent crisis with the Genii, Richard Woolsey refuses the offer, stating that if they had the Daedalus stay after every crisis, the ship would constantly be in orbit. The Daedalus departs as per the new ship schedule with Caldwell promising to return in a month. (SGA: "Legacy: Homecoming")

The Daedalus eventually returns to Atlantis after Rodney McKay's capture, bringing Jeannie Miller back to help install safeguards against anything McKay could do to the city's systems. It is called into action alongside the George Hammond to defend the city against an attack by a hive ship and Wraith cruiser sent by Queen Death and equipped with shields outfitted by the now-Wraith McKay. During the battle, the Daedalus engines are disabled and the Hammond has to face the hive ship alone as the Daedalus works on repairs.

As the Hammond attempts a suicide run, the Daedalus crew finally fixes her engines and the Daedalus resumes her attack, drawing the attention of the hive ship. Taking advantage of the distraction, Carter channels all of the Hammond's remaining power into the railguns and fires five shots into the hive ship's stern as it faces the Daedalus, destroying the hive ship. Carter is left without power and thus no inertial dampeners or life support and faces death on the powerless Hammond, but the Daedalus beams her out and saves her life. (SGA: "Allegiance")

Following the battle, repairs begin on both ships with the Daedalus being repaired more quickly. As a result, Caldwell takes the Daedalus back to Earth to report as Atlantis no longer has a ZPM and the Hammond's hyperdrive is still down. When the Daedalus leaves, the ship takes the most critically injured from the battle to send to the SGC through the first Milky Way Stargate they find and leave behind their F-302 wing to help in the coming battles as the Hammond was launched without one. (SGA: "The Furies")

When Atlantis learns of Queen Death's impending attack, the Daedalus is determined to be too far away to reach Atlantis in time to help so an attempt is not made. (SGA: "Inheritors")

Continuing service

In 2012, the Daedalus ferries SG-1 on a mission to a ruined Ancient outpost on P3X-406 to destroy an Ancient device capable of eliminating an entire species before the Oranians can get it and sell the device to the Lucian Alliance. After SG-1 finds the clone of Jack O'Neill on the planet, he is beamed to the Daedalus while SG-1 finishes dealing the situation on the planet and destroys the device. After the mission, the Daedalus carries the team and Jack back to Earth and beams Jack back to the parking lot of the tavern he'd been in before being abducted by the Alliance. (SG1: "Off Balance")


What is Ancient History?

Every society has told stories about ancient times, but contemporary ancient history was the product of two main developments. The first was the invention of writing, which made scholarly study of the past possible, and the second was the explosion of knowledge about the world from the eighteenth century onward. Europeans responded to this explosion by inventing two main versions of antiquity: the first, an evolutionary model, was global and went back to the origins of humanity and the second, a classical model, treated Greece and Rome as turning points in world history. These two views of antiquity have competed for two hundred and fifty years, but in the twenty-first century, the evidence and methods available to ancient historians are changing faster than at any other time since the debate began. We should therefore expect the balance between the two theories to shift dramatically. We close by considering some possible areas of engagement.

Ancient history is the study of beginnings, and is thus organized around two central questions: 1) how to define the subject matter whose beginning is being studied and 2) what that beginning means for the world that the studiers live in. Across the centuries, the answers ancient historians have offered to these questions have changed significantly, largely in response to new evidence and new methods. But now, in the twenty-first century, the evidence and methods available are changing faster than at any time since the eighteenth century, and we should expect the answers ancient historians offer to do the same.

Ancient history has always been with us because, so far as we know, every society has had stories about its beginning. In the absence of writing, however, ancient history could never be much more than myth-making. Such stories usually describe the world's creation and peopling, as well as the origins of the particular group telling the myth. Since most adults in the world were still illiterate as recently as 1960, for most of our time on earth, these hazy, once-upon-a-time worlds–worlds which Aboriginal Australians describe with the wonderfully evocative term “the dreamtime”–were the only ancient history possible.

Writing introduced vastly superior evidence for antiquity, and every literate civilization has produced its caste of ancient historians. Remarkably, though, almost all of these groups did much the same as their predecessors with the available data, choosing a particular piece of their own ancient history and pronouncing it exemplary. The best example of this is probably the case of China, where, by the first century bce , scholars had already nominated the sage Confucius, who lived in the fifth century bce , as an ancient paragon of virtue. This anointing took place even though–or perhaps because–Confucius himself claimed merely to be reviving the virtues of a still earlier paragon, the Duke of Zhou, of the eleventh century bce : “I transmit but do not create,” Confucius wrote, “I am an admirer of antiquity.” 1 Confucius's popularity went up and down, but until well into the twentieth century, the texts attributed to him remained at the center of elite education in China.

In this way, each civilization produced its own version of exemplary ancient history, and until the eighteenth century, no serious challenge to this way of thinking about the distant past appeared. Only then, and only in Western Europe, did new facts make such stories of beginnings seem inadequate, and thinkers responded by coming up with two new ideas that have dominated ancient history ever since. The basic problem–and opportunity–was that ever since Marco Polo came back from Cathay in 1295, evidence had accumulated that there were things in heaven and earth that just did not fit into Europe's exemplary history and by the 1720s, groups of radicals, especially in France and Scotland, were responding to the anomalies by proposing a new paradigm.

What if, they asked, the hunter-gatherers and herders that missionaries, traders, and conquerors had met in other continents were actually survivals of how everyone had once lived? What if, rather than representing the beginning, Jesus and the other moral exemplars of antiquity were really just actors within one stage of history? And what if history had really begun with a worldwide state of nature and had then improved, until humanity reached the heights of enlightened Paris and Edinburgh?

This wild new theory, which its champions called philosophical history, shook up salons all over Europe. But by the 1750s, it was already generating a backlash. Philosophical history, its many critics (particularly in Germany and England) observed, had not actually proven that humanity had climbed from foraging, through herding and farming, on to the current age of commerce. To them, the whole endeavor should really be called conjectural history, not philosophical history.

What was needed, these critics argued, was not just-so stories about civilization's emergence from so-called “savagery,” but serious scholarship–like that being done at the time on the literature and sculpture of ancient Greece and Rome. Faced with the mass of new facts being generated by philologists and connoisseurs, conjectures about hunter-gatherers were revealed as not just unprovable, but also unimportant. What really mattered to these reformers was that two-and-a-half-millennia earlier, the Greeks had invented a unique civilization based on the principles of reason, freedom, and beauty. The towering intellects of ancient Greece–Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Thucydides–had wrenched humanity out of its long slumber. This, and not conjectures about Amazonian hunters, was the beginning we should be studying.

In one sense, classicists of the eighteenth century could legitimately be accused of trying to go back to an exemplary model of antiquity, but in another sense, they were moving far beyond it. They accepted the emphasis of conjectural historians on comparison with the new data coming in from other continents, but insisted that what that comparison actually showed was that the Greeks and Romans were incomparable. When Johann Joachim Winckelmann in 1755 contrasted the “noble simplicity and quiet grandeur” of the Greeks with the decadence of Etruscan and Egyptian art, he saw it as evidence for the complete superiority of the Greeks and by 1808, Wilhelm von Humboldt was ready to go much further. 2 “Our study of Greek history,” he wrote, is “a matter quite different from our other historical studies. For us, the Greeks step outside the circle of history…. We fail entirely to recognize our relationship to them if we dare to apply the standards to them which we apply to the rest of world history…. [F]rom the Greeks we take something more than earthly–something godlike.” 3

Unable to compete with classicists’ methodological sophistication and weight of data, conjectural history collapsed in the early nineteenth century. However, it is hard to keep a good theory down, and as information from other fields of scholarship continued to accumulate, it soon came back revived and revised. In the 1850s, Herbert Spencer, the first theorist to use the word “evolution” in something like its modern sense, argued that every field, from geology and biology to history and metaphysics, could be tied together in a single story of “the advance from the simple to the complex.” 4 Classical civilization was just one stage in a larger story, Spencer asserted, and “had Greece and Rome never existed, human life, and the right conduct of it, would have been in their essentials exactly what they are now.” 5

Many evolutionists, including Marx and Weber, granted Greece and Rome a bigger place in the story than this. However, by 1900, it was clear that cultural evolution, as the theory came to be known, was not going to collapse like conjectural history it was able to organize far too many facts, and its theoretical frameworks were far too robust for that. The invention of radiocarbon dating in the 1940s and the calibration revolution of the 1970s provided a global framework for comparisons, and fossil and dna data pushed the story of mankind's beginnings back millions of years.

Despite the high quality of much of the scholarship being done on Greece and Rome, the twentieth century was one long retreat for the classical vision of ancient history, in part because evolutionism proved vastly more exportable on the world stage. Herbert Spencer was one of the first English-language nonfiction writers to be translated into Chinese and Japanese, and his work quickly spawned Asian imitators. European classical scholarship did have a significant impact on the methods of Asian ancient historians (China's “Doubting Antiquity” movement and Japan's Tokyo and Kyoto Schools all drew inspiration from European Quellenforschung, the philological analysis of sources) but its core claims about Greco-Roman exceptionalism were largely ignored.

Within Western education, evolutionary and classical approaches to beginnings coexisted, the former mostly colonizing the new social science disciplines, and the latter dominating the older humanities fields. But even within the humanities, the classical vision steadily lost ground. The University of Chicago, where both the authors of this article once taught, is a good example. The university is probably best known for its commitment to the social sciences, but it has also been a staunch defender of the classical heritage. When the university was founded in 1892, it organized separate departments of Greek and Latin, because classics was too important a field to confine within a single unit the Classics Building, which opened its doors in 1915, is still one of the finest structures on campus. However, by the time we arrived in Chicago (Morris in 1987, Scheidel in 2000), Greek and Latin had been condensed into a single classics department, and its denizens had been penned into one corner of the second floor. There were rearguard actions, to be sure: In 1948, the history department began offering a wildly popular course on the history of Western civilization (which both of us once taught). This year-long sequence, running–as student wisdom put it–from Plato to nato , was required for all undergraduates for decades. Even in the 1980s, by which time the course was optional, most students took it anyway, and some still camped out overnight to get into their preferred sections. In 2003, however, the university closed it down.

In the mid-2010s, the sheer bulk of archaeological evidence organized by evolutionary models, the elegance of evolutionary theory, and the rhetorical power of narratives like Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) or Yuval Noah Harari's Sapiens (2011) seem to have won over educated opinion. 6 Now, the origin story that seems to matter most began not in first-millennium- bce Greece and Rome, but with the invention of agriculture in the Middle East more than ten thousand years ago, or the evolution in Africa of modern humans more than one hundred thousand years ago, or of the genus Homo nearly three million years ago.

Given this view of history, Greece and Rome might be interesting topics, but they just are not very important ones. In Morton Fried's anthropological classic The Evolution of Political Society (1967), read by tens of thousands of college students, Greece and Rome each show up on just three of the 270 pages. They fare better in David Christian's hugely influential world history Maps of Time (2004), each cropping up sixteen times–but that book has 642 pages. 7

And yet at Stanford, where both of us now teach, nineteen of the twenty-seven professors whose research focuses on any aspect of humanity before ad 600 work chiefly on Greece and Rome. Our casual survey of websites suggests that Stanford is in no way unusual many American universities devote twice as many faculty to Greece and Rome as they do to the rest of the ancient world combined. Even if the lopsided distribution of resources is, in large part, a matter of institutional inertia, the battle over beginnings that opened in eighteenth-century Europe is clearly far from over.

That said, it might be time to take the battle in a new direction.

One of the most remarkable things about the 250-year-long back and forth between evolutionary and classical models of ancient history is how little each side has engaged with the other's arguments. This is most obvious in the classical model, which willfully ignores millions of years of history along with most societies that have ever existed. A century ago, classical historians regularly claimed that Greece and Rome were the beginning of the history that mattered, but nowadays the very few who do so tend to be dismissed as reactionaries or racists. Most classicists seem to be getting on with careful research, without worrying too much about the wider significance of their work, even though this seems likely to ensure the classical model's continued retreat.

However, a similar dynamic is at play within the evolutionary model. No one familiar with conventional history could fail to be struck by the way that evolutionary histories tend to have a lot to say about the agricultural revolution and the origins of states, and about the integration of the world in the early-modern period and the subsequent industrial revolution, but very little about anything that transpired in between. The geographer Alfred Crosby apparently speaks for many when he says, in his wonderful book Ecological Imperialism, that “between [2500 bce ] and [the] time of development of the societies that sent Columbus and other voyagers across the oceans, roughly four thousand years passed, during which little of importance happened.” 8

This flyover zone, of course, includes almost all of recorded history. It saw the world's population increase one hundredfold, the largest cities grow twentyfold, and writing, markets, money, wealth, inequality, empires, war, institutional capacity, and the stock of knowledge each transform the human experience. A version of history with a blind spot that obscures all of these changes is arguably little better than a version that cannot see anything outside the history of Greece and Rome.

It seems to us that this peculiarity of evolutionary history confronts classical historians–whichever part of the world they may work on–with both an opportunity and an obligation to respond. Evolutionary historians often seem to imply (or, in Crosby's case, state explicitly) that once agriculture began in the Near East after 9600 bce , everything else followed automatically, with cultural differences counting for little. This is a huge claim to make, with enormous implications for where the world might go in the centuries to come and no one is better placed than classical historians and archaeologists to find out whether it is true.

Rising to the challenge and obligation, however, will necessarily take classical historians far beyond the field's established comfort zone. Deep knowledge of particular cultures and mastery of their languages will remain important, but perhaps no more so than broad knowledge of world archaeology, quantitative methods, the social sciences, linguistics, and evolutionary theory. Conventional boundaries between prehistory and ancient history, ancient and medieval history, and cultural traditions will lose much of their meaning.

Equally important, engaging with the evolutionary vision will have consequences for how ancient historians are taught. Currently, in most institutions of higher learning, ancient history is part of a humanistic curriculum, emphasizing languages and the details of a specific literary, historical, artistic, and philosophical tradition. Simply adding more requirements to graduate programs that are already too long does not seem like a very good solution, but neither does turning training on its head, and abandoning the knowledge of primary sources and particulars that has always been classical history's strength in favor of the training that comparativists receive in the social sciences.

Possibly the least poor compromise would be to approach ancient history in a manner similar to how anthropology used to be taught. A graduate student interested in, say, how politics functioned in prestate societies was not expected to learn everything that could be known about every acephalous group on earth. He or she might, instead, combine a broad cross cultural survey with immersion in one specific group, learning its languages, living among its people, eating its food, and catching its diseases. Insights, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz once suggested, are not made by “regarding a remote locality as the world in a teacup or as the sociological equivalent of a cloud chamber,” but by recognizing that “small facts speak to large issues … because they are made to.” 9 Studies of the size of ancient Greek houses or Athenian worker's wages or the cost of raising foundlings as slaves in Roman Egypt do not have to speak to broader theories of how premodern economies work–but they can be made to. 10

So far, the topic that has attracted most attention of this kind is probably the “Axial Age,” which lends itself to a variety of approaches that could potentially combine classical and evolutionary thinking about ancient history. Struggling in the 1940s to come to terms with the moral crisis of his own day, the German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the phrase to describe the middle of the first millennium bce because, he said, this had been the axis around which the world's history had turned. From China to the Mediterranean, the centuries on either side of 500 bce saw an explosion of moral thinking, producing Confucianism and Daoism in China, Buddhism and Jainism in India, and Greek philosophy and the Hebrew Bible in the Mediterranean region and Near East. This really was the beginning of the history that counted, Jaspers asserted, because this was when “man, as we know him today, came into being.” 11 Jaspers did not gloss over the deep differences between Chinese, Indian, Iranian, Israelite, and Greek thought after all, no one could possibly mistake Plato's Apology for Confucius's Analects. He observed, however, that all the way from Greece to the Yellow River, intellectuals began debating similar questions at roughly the same time. The new thinkers tended to be similar kinds of people, usually coming from the lower ranks of the elite and from small, marginal states rather than from great empires. They also tended to reach the conclusion that while the nature of goodness was indefinable, people could still transcend the evils of this world. Attaining ren (Confucius's “humaneness”), nirvana (the Buddha's “snuffing out” of consciousness), dao (Zhuangzi's “way”), or to kalon (Plato's “good”) was a matter of self-fashioning, looking for the answers within rather than waiting for kings or priests to provide them. The secret, however, always involved compassion. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, the Axial Age founders said, and you will change the world.

For some decades, social scientists seemed to find the Axial Age more interesting than humanists did, perhaps because the roughly simultaneous appearance of similar intellectual systems in such distinct cultures, without much evidence of diffusion, was easier to analyze in evolutionary terms than within the culturespecific frameworks that classical historians favored. 12 There were exceptions, but in the last few years classical scholars have begun claiming the topic as their own. 13 Few scholars have the talents to master the relevant skills thoroughly enough to become experts on the primary sources from multiple Axial Age civilizations (the eminent historian of ancient science Geoffrey Lloyd is the obvious exception), but there are other ways to approach the problem. 14 For instance, scholars might set focused studies of the Presocratics, Upanishads, or Mencius against the larger Axial background, or, more broadly, ask why there was no Axial Age in the second millennium bce , or the New World. 15

In their teaching and research, ancient historians deal with one of the most consequential phases of human cultural evolution, a time when modestly sized local groups of people–villages, towns, chiefdoms, and the like–were increasingly absorbed into ever-larger networks of cooperation and, more often than not, control. Models of social organization differed considerably, from small but cohesive independent communities to large but heterogeneous and highly hierarchical empires. The ancient Mediterranean produced both of these outcomes in paradigmatic form: the Greek city-state culture, the largest of its kind in all of history, and the Roman Empire, the biggest empire ever to exist in that region, which, in an added twist, had grown out of a small city-state.

For several reasons, these developments are best studied from a comparative perspective. Since empires tended to appear wherever ecological conditions allowed, the driving forces behind the rise and fall of any one of them cannot properly be assessed in isolation. That modern scholars have managed to propose more than two hundred different reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire strongly suggests that conventional academic focus on just a single case is simply a dead end, and that comparative analysis of a process that occurred so many times in history promises far more compelling results. 16

Moreover, the tension between city-state and empire as competing and complementary forms of sociopolitical organization throws light on a very big problem of history more generally: the relationship between state formation and human welfare. Our colleague Josiah Ober has powerfully argued that the pluralism of the Greek city-state culture delivered important benefits, especially when it sustained participatory democracy, as it did in classical Athens. 17 At the same time, one of us has found that human social development peaked whenever some of the largest premodern empires were at the height of their power. 18

Understanding the costs and gains associated with different forms of macrosocial cooperation has been a major challenge across academic disciplines, and ancient history has much to contribute. After all, the modern West grew out of a highly competitive state system that had gradually emerged from the wreckage of the Roman Empire. Unlike in other parts of the globe, where failed empires were often replaced within a few centuries by new empires, no comparable behemoth ever again took over all of temperate Europe. The Roman state and the Chinese Qin and Han Dynasties had built huge empires that became more similar as they matured, and yet Europe and China embarked on very different trajectories once these early superstates had failed. 19 The subsequent divergence between the periodic restoration and abatement of universal empire in East Asia (and elsewhere) and enduring polycentrism in Europe requires explanation, a task only made possible by systematic comparison.

Global contextualization of this kind forces ancient historians to reformulate their own questions: If the Roman Empire was unique, why did it appear in the first place? By privileging its decline and fall over its rise, have we trained our sights on the lesser challenge? Are there specific environmental obstacles to empire that the Romans somehow overcame–and how could we possibly hope to know them unless we also look at other parts of the world? Most importantly, does the lasting disappearance of the Roman Empire help explain one of the most momentous historical transformations, the Industrial Revolution, and the resultant “Great Divergence” between the West and the rest of the world? The reasons for this breakthrough remain contested, with some scholars favoring relatively recent or contingent factors and others arguing for the relevance of more deeply entrenched, long-term causes. 20 By fostering competition and preserving alternative pathways of development, did the absence of anything like the Roman Empire in the West prepare the ground for modernity? 21

However one chooses to approach these big questions, both the Axial Age and the successive political and economic divergences between Europe and the rest of the world strike us as areas where twenty-first-century classical historians have important things to say about the beginnings of the world we occupy and where it might be going next, as classical and philosophical historians alike tried to do in the eighteenth century. But just as both these groups of scholars did a quarter of a millennium ago, if today's classical historians want to make contributions to explaining beginnings, we will need to raise our game, master new evidence, methods, and questions, and recognize that the ancient world was much bigger–and ancient history much longer–than our predecessors made them seem.


Search for Daedalus, the most-wanted fugitive

Daedalus' life continued in Sicily where king Cocalus offered him a sanctuary. However, Minos still hunted Daedalus and, therefore, sent a complex puzzle to all of the known world, in order to find out his whereabouts. He stated that whoever was able to solve the puzzle, would be richly rewarded. King Cocalus was aware of Daedalus' abillities and asked him to solve the puzzle which would gain his kingdom prestige and perhaps even Minos’ favour. The inventor solved the puzzle by piercing a hole in the tip of the conch shell, smeared it with honey and tied the thread around an ant. The honey attracted the ant which found its way through the spirals of the empty shell, taking the thread with it. Cocalus then sent announcement of solving the puzzle to Minos, never suspecting that he was betraying Daedalus, the most-wanted fugitive in Crete. Minos travelled to Sicily in person to get back the man who escaped his authority. However, Cocalus was reluctant to lose his asset and murdered Minos in a boiling bath, making it look like an accident. Some sources even claim that it was Daedalus himself who crafted this "accident". Once danger was gone, Daedalus lived freely in Sicily, making many new inventions. He was believed to have died there from old age.


HMS Daedalus airfield, Lee on Solent

During the war years, Lee on Solent was vital for formation and work up of newly commissioned operational squadrons. As well as this, the airfield played a crucial role in the D-Day landings.

Due to naval aviation responsibilities being transferred to the Navy in May 1939, the base was then commissioned as HMS Daedalus. At the start of the Second World War, due to the threat of air raids, the station’s buildings were camouflaged and anti-aircraft gun defences and shelters constructed to protect the town’s airfield. Two units were based there: 778 Squadron and the Service Trials Unit.

By 1941 the variety of naval aircraft flying from HMS Daedalus had increased with a number of first-line squadrons being based here during their course of formation and re-equipment.

In February 1944, HMS Daedalus assembled a variety of squadrons together. These were the Fleet Air Arm’s 885, 808, 886 and 897 S quadrons of 3 Fighter Wing with Seafire L III and Seafire Vb aircraft, and 26 and 63 Squadrons from the RAF. Together these squadrons formed 34 Reconnaissance Wing, 2nd Tactical Air Force.

HMS Daedalus was the busiest airfield on the South Coast during D-Day as the RAF were joined by Canadian Typhoons and Mustangs who also flew from here. As well as this, US Navy Squadron VCS-7 used the airfield as the base for their Spitfires.

At 0441 hours on the 6 June 1944, the first aircraft to take part in Operation Overlord from Lee-on-Solent took off towards the Normandy beach head. The aircraft worked in pairs, with one plane targeting naval gunnery targets, while the other provided protection against air attack. The number of units deployed from HMS Daedalus for Operation Overlord was 435. This number was the largest achieved by any UK airfield on D-Day.


Appendices

Appearances

    :
    • " The Nagus " (model in DS9's classroom)
    • " Progress " (model from here on in Sisko's office)
    • " If Wishes Were Horses "
    • " Dramatis Personae "
    • " Duet "
    • " The Homecoming "
    • " The Maquis, Part I "
    • " The Maquis, Part II "
    • " Rejoined "
    • " The Way of the Warrior "
    • " You Are Cordially Invited "
    • " Inquisition "
    • " Afterimage "

    Background information

    The Daedalus class was mentioned but unseen in "Power Play." Gregory Jein constructed a model of the Horizon identified as Daedalus class for the reference work Star Trek Chronology, which Mike Okuda then had reproduced for set dressing in Sisko's office on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine starting in "The Nagus" and later used in the Star Trek Encyclopedia.

    Reference works have further identified the Archon and USS Carolina as Daedalus class starships.

    Apocrypha

    A Daedalus-class starship named the USS Lovell ( β ) is prominently featured in the Star Trek: SCE Foundations trilogy. The Daedalus-class starship on the book's cover is the USS Archon. The USS Lovell is also active in the Star Trek: Vanguard novels. The ship – a CGI model constructed by Doug Drexler – is shown outside Starbase 47 (Vanguard) ( β ) on the cover of the second book of the series Summon the Thunder (though Drexler had assigned the registry number NCC-129 to the USS Daedalus ( β ) on his CGI model).

    In Michael Jan Friedman's novel Starfleet: Year One, competition among the early Starfleet's captains for command of the first Daedalus was one of the main plot threads – though the events of this novel have been ignored by later novels, as it was contradicted by Star Trek: Enterprise.

    Star Trek: Legacy was the first Star Trek video game to feature a Daedalus-class starship.

    In the Pocket ENT novels The Good That Men Do, Kobayashi Maru, and Beneath the Raptor's Wing, the Daedalus-class is featured heavily as an older ship class refitted with modern technology, and the main replacement of the NX-class fleet. The NX ships were deemed too expensive and taking too long to build, shipyard personnel stated they could churn out three new Daedalus hulls in the same time it would take to build one NX vessel.

    According to Issue #100 of the Star Trek: The Official Starships Collection, the Daedalus-class was a type of explorer. This class was approximately 140 meters in length, had a maximum speed of warp factor 7, and was equipped with phaser emitters and photon torpedo launchers. It was stated further that this class of ship superseded the NX-class starships.

    The Star Trek: Ships of the Line (2020) calendar includes a detailed cutaway and mission patch of the USS Daedalus (NCC-129), designed by Matthew Cushman, Karl Tate, and Doug Drexler.


    Removing or redelegating your ada from a stake pool

    There may come a time when you want to remove your ada from a stake pool, either to realize better gains in another pool or to use your ada for something else. As we briefly discussed, ada that you delegate to a pool still belongs to you and you always retain full control over your funds.

    To redelegate your stake, simply open your wallet and head to the delegation center. In the list of wallets you own, find the wallet you wish to redelegate. On the right-hand side, there will be an option to ‘redelegate’ your ada — select this option.

    You can now go through the same process as you would follow to delegate to a stake pool for the first time and redelegate to a new pool. Remember, this process will take two epochs to update your staking preferences, and another two epochs before you begin receiving rewards — so think carefully about how and when you redelegate.

    Likewise, to remove your ada from a stake pool, you simply need to send your ada from your staking wallet to a fresh wallet address that you control. As the ada you delegate never leaves your wallet, this process is as simple as sending a normal transaction.


    Daedalus

    A mythical personage, under whose name the Greek writers personified the earliest development of the arts of sculpture and architecture, especially among the Athenians and Cretans. Though he is represented as living in the early heroic period, the age of Minos and of Theseus, he is not mentioned by Homer, except in one doubtful passage (see below).

    The ancient writers generally represent Daedalus as an Athenian, of the royal race of the Erechtheidae. 1 Others called him a Cretan, on account of the long time he lived in Crete. 2 According to Diodorus, who gives the fullest account of him, 3 he was the son of Metion, the son of Eupalamus, the son of Erichthonius. 4 Others make him the son of Eupalamus, or of Palamaon. 5 His mother is called Alcippe, 6 or Iphinoë, 7 or Phrasimede. 8 He devoted himself to sculpture, and made great improvements in the art. He instructed his sister's son, Calos, Talos, or Perdix, who soon came to surpass him in skill and ingenuity, and Daedalus killed him through envy.

    Being condemned to death by the Areopagus for this murder, he went to Crete, where the fame of his skill obtained for him the friendship of Minos. He made the well-known wooden cow for Pasiphaë and when Pasiphaë gave birth to the Minotaur, Daedalus constructed the labyrinth, at Cnossus, in which the monster was kept. 9 [The labyrinth is a fiction, based upon the Egyptian labyrinth, from which Diodorus says that that of Daedalus was copied: 10 there is no proof that such a building ever existed in Crete]. 11 For his part in this affair, Daedalus was imprisoned by Minos but Pasiphaë released him, and, as Minos had seized all the ships on the coast of Crete, Daedalus procured wings for himself and his son Icarus (or made them of wood), and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus himself flew safe over the Aegean, but, as Icarus flew too near the sun, the wax by which his wings were fastened on was melted, and he dropped down and was drowned in that part of the Aegean which was called after him the Icarian sea.

    According to a more prosaic version of the story, Pasiphaë furnished Daedalus with a ship, in which he fled to an island of the Aegean, where Icarus was drowned in a hasty attempt to land. According to both accounts, Daedalus fled to Sicily, where he was protected by Cocalus the king of the Sicani, and where he executed many great works of art. When Minos heard where Daedalus had taken refuge, he sailed with a great fleet to Sicily, where he was treacherously murdered by Cocalus or his daughters. 12 Daedalus afterwards left Sicily, to join Iolaus, son of Iphicles, in his newly founded colony in Sardinia, and there also he executed many great works, which were still called Daidaleia ( Δαιδάλεια ) in the time of Diodorus, 13 who no doubt refers to the Nuraglis, which were also attributed to lolaüs. 14

    Another account was, that he fled from Sicily, in consequence of the pursuit of Minos, and went with Aristaeus to Sardinia. 15 Of the stories which connect him with Egypt, the most important are the statements of Diodorus, 16 that he executed works there, that he copied his labyrinth from that in Egypt, that the style ( ῥυθμός , rhythmos) of his statues was the same as that of the ancient Egyptian statues, and that Daedalus himself was worshiped in Egypt as a god.

    The later Greek writers explained these myths after their usual absurd plan. Thus, according to Lucian, Daedalus was a great master of astrology, and taught the science to his son, who, soaring above plain truths into transcendental mysteries, lost his reason, and was drowned in the abyss of difficulties. The fable of Pasiphaë is also explained by making her a pupil of Daedalus in astrology, and the bull is the constellation Taurus. Palaephatus explains the wings of Daedalus as meaning the invention of sails. 17 If these fables are to be explained at all, the only rational interpretation is, that they were poetical inventions, setting forth the great improvement which took place, in the mechanical as well as in the fine arts, at the age of which Daedalus is a personification, and also the sup­posed geographical course by which the fine arts were first introduced into Greece.

    When, therefore, we are told of works of art which were referred to Daedalus, the meaning is, that such works were executed at the period when art began to be developed. The exact character of the Daedalian epoch of art will be best understood from the statements of the ancient writers respect­ing his works. The following is a list of the works of sculpture and architecture which were ascribed to him: In Crete, the cow of Pasiphaë and the labyrinth. In Sicily, near Megaris, the Colymbethra, or reservoir, from which a great river, named Alabon, flowed into the sea near Agrigentum, an impregnable city upon a rock, in which was the royal palace and treasury of Cocalus in the territory of Selinus a cave, in which the vapor arising from a subterranean fire was received in such a manner, as to form a pleasant vapor bath. He also enlarged the summit of Mount Eryx by a wall, so as to make a firm foundation for the temple of Aphrodite For this same temple he made a honeycomb of gold which could scarcely be distinguished from a real honeycomb. Diodorus adds, that he was said to have executed many more works of art in Sicily, which had perished through the lapse of time. 18

    Several other works of art were attributed to Daedalus, in Greece, Italy, Libya, and the islands of the Mediterranean. Temples of Apollo at Capua and Cumae were ascribed to him. 19 In the islands called Electridae, in the Adriatic, there were said to be two statues, the one of tin and the other of brass, which Daedalus made to commemorate his arrival at those islands during his flight from Minos. They were the images of himself and of his son Icarus. 20 At Monogissa in Caria there was a statue of Artemis ascribed to him. 21 In Egypt he was said to be the architect of a most beautiful propylaeum to the temple of Hephaestus at Memphis, for which he was rewarded by the erection of a statue of himself and made by himself, in that temple. 22 Scylax mentions an altar on the coast of Libya, which was sculptured with lions and dolphins by Daedalus. 23 The temple of Artemis Britomartis, in Crete, was ascribed to Daedalus. 24

    There is a passage in which Pausanias mentions all the wooden statues which he believed to be the genuine works of Daedalus 25 namely, two in Boeotia, a Heracles at Thebes, respecting which there was a curious legend, 26 and a Trophonius at Lebadeia: in Crete, an Artemis Britomartis at Olus, and an Athena at Cnossus (the χύρος (chyros) of Ariadne is spoken of below): at Delos, a small terminal wooden statue of Aphrodite, which was said to have been made by Daedalus for Ariadne, who carried it to Delos when she fled with Theseus. Pausanias adds, that these were all the works of Daedalus which remained at his time, for that the statue set up by the Argives in the Heraeum and that which Antiphemus had removed from the Sicanian city, Omphace, to Gelos, had perished through time. 27 Elsewhere Pausanias mentions, as works ascribed to Daedalus, a folding seat ( δίφρος ὀκλαδίας , diphros okladias) in the temple of Athena Polias at Athens, 28 a wooden statue of Heracles at Corinth, 29 and another on the confines of Messenia and Arcadia. 30

    The inventions and improvements attributed to Daedalus are both artistic and mechanical. He was the reputed inventor of carpentry and its chief tools, the saw, the ax, the plumb-line, the auger or gimlet, and glue. 31 He was said to have been taught the art of carpentry by Minerva. 32 Others attribute the invention of the saw to Perdix or Talos, the nephew of Daedalus. In naval architecture, the invention of the mast and yards is ascribed to Daedalus, that of the sails to Icarus 33 In statuary, the improvements attributed to Daedalus were the opening of the eyes and of the feet, which had been formerly closed ( σύμποδα (sympoda), σκέλη συμβεβηκότα (skelē symbebēkota), the figures of Daedalus were called διαβεβηκότα (diabebēkota)) and the extending of the hands, which had been formerly placed down close to the sides (καθειμέναι καὶ ταῖς πλευραῖς κεκολλημέναι, katheimenai kai tais pleurais kekollēmenai). 34 In consequence of these improvements, the ancient writers speak of the statues of Daedalus as being distinguished by an expression of life and even of divine inspiration. 35 The last two passages seem to refer to automata, which we know to have been called Daedalian images. Aristotle mentions a wooden figure of Aphrodite, which was moved by quicksilver within it, as a work ascribed to Daedalus. 36 The difficult passage in Plato 37 is rightly explained by Thiersch, as being only comparative, and as meant not in disparagement of Daedalus, but in praise of the artists of Plato's time. The material in which the statues of Daedalus were made, was wood.

    The only exception worth noticing is in the passage of Pausanias: 38 παρὰ τούτοις δὲ [Κνωσσίοις] καὶ ὁ τῆς Ἀριάδνης χορὸς, οὗ καὶ Ὅμηρος ἐν Ἰλιάδι μνήμην ἐποιήσατο, ἐπειργασμένος ἐστὶν ἐπὶ λευκοῦ λίθου (para toutois de [Knōssiois] kai ho tēs Ariadnēs choros, hou kai Homēros en Iliadi mnēmēn epoiēsato, epeirgasmenos estin epi leukou lithou). 39 The passage of Homer is in the description of the shield of Achilles: 40 " Ἐν δὲ χορὸν ποίκιλλε περικλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις, Τῷ ἴκελον οἷόν ποτ᾽ ἐνί Κνωσῷ εὐρείῃ Δαίδαλος ἤσκησεν καλλιπλοκάμῳ Ἀριάδνῃ (En de choron poikille periklytos Amphigyēeis, Tō ikelon hoion pot᾽ eni Knōsō eureiē Daidalos ēskēsen kalliplokamō Ariadnē)."

    Now the mention of a group of dancers as a work of Daedalus, — the material, white stone, — the circumstance of the poet's representing Hephaestus as copying the work of a mortal artist, — and the absence of any other mention of Daedalus in Homer, — all this is, at the least, very suspicious. It cannot be explained by taking χορὸν (choron) to mean a sort of dance which Daedalus invented ( ἤσκησεν , ēskēsen), for we never hear of Daedalus in connexion with dancing, 41 and a sufficient number of examples can be produced from Homer of ἀσκεῖν (askein) meaning to make or manufacture. Unless the passage be an interpolation, the best explanation is, that χορὸν means simply a place for dancing and, further, it is not improbable that Daidalos ( Δαίδαλος ) may be nothing more than an epithet of Hephaestus who is the great artist in Homer, and that the whole mythological fable in which Daedalus was personified had its origin in the misunderstanding of this very passage. At all events, the group seen by Pausanias at Cnossus, if it really was a group of sculpture, must have been the work of an artist later than the Daedalian period, or at the very end of it.

    From these statements of the ancient writers it is not difficult to form some idea of the period in the history of art which the name of Daedalus represents. The name itself, like the others which are associated with it, such as Eupalamus, implies skill.

    The earliest works of art, which were attributed to the gods, were called δαίδαλα (daidala). Passing from mythology to history, we find sculpture taking its rise in idolatry but the earliest idols were nothing more than blocks of wood or stone, which were worshiped under the name of some gods. 42 The next effort was to express the attributes of each particular divinity, which was at first done only by forming an image of the head, probably in order to denote purely intellectual attributes: hence the origin of terminal busts, and the reason for their remaining in use long after the art of sculpturing the whole figure had attained to the highest perfection. But there were some deities for the expression of whose attributes the bust was not sufficient, but the whole human figure was required. In the earliest attempts to execute such figures, wood would naturally be selected as the material, on account of the ease of working it. They were ornamented with real drapery and bright colors. It was to such works especially, that the name δαίδαλα was applied, as we are informed by Pausanias, 43 who adds, that they were so called before Daedalus was born at Athens. The accuracy and the expression of such images was restricted not only by the limited skill of the artist, but also, as we see so strikingly in Egyptian sculpture, by the religious laws which bound him to certain forms.

    The period represented by the name of Daedalus was that in which such forms were first broken through, and the at­tempt was made to give a natural and lifelike expression to statues, accompanied, as such a development of any branch of art always is, by a great improvement in the mechanics of art. The period when this development of art took place, and the degree of foreign influence implied in the fables about Daedalus, are very difficult questions, and cannot be discussed within the limits of this article. The ancient traditions certainly point to Egypt as the source of Grecian art. 44 But, without hazarding an opinion on this point, we may refer to the Egyptian and Etruscan and earliest Greek antiquities, as giving some vague idea of what is meant by the Daedalian style of sculpture. The remains called Cyclopean give a similar notion of the Daedalian architecture.

    The Daedalian style of art continued to prevail and improve down to the beginning of the fifth century BCE, and the artists of that long period were called Daedalids, and claimed an actual descent from Daedalus, according to the well-known custom by which art was hereditary in certain families. This genealogy was carried down as late as the time of Socrates, who claimed to be a Daedalid. The most important of the Daedalids, besides his son Icarus, and his nephew Talos or Perdix, were Scyllis and Dipoenus, whom some made the sons of Daedalus, 45 Endoeus of Athens, 46 Learchus of Rhegium, 47 and Onatas of Aegina. 48 All these, however, lived long after the period in which Daedalus is placed. Besides Icarus, Daedalus was said to have had a son, Iapyx, who founded Iapygae. 49

    A demos of the Athenian phyle CeCropis ( φυλὴ Κεκρόπις ) bore the name of Daidalidai ( Δαιδαλίδαι ). 50 Feasts called Daidaleia ( Δαιδάλεια ) were kept in different parts of Greece.

    Iconography

    Daedalus and Icarus are depicted on many Greek vases, gem stones, and Pompeian murals (such as at the Casa del Meandro). A Roman relief shows Daedalus fashioning the wings with which they escaped. Brueghel painted the fall of Icarus. Furthermore, the painting by Brill and the group of sculptures by Canova.



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