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Trajan Arch of Merida

Trajan Arch of Merida

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The Trajan Arch of Merida is part of UNESCO’s Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida and is believed to have been a triumphal arch to the Hispanic Emperor Trajan. However, this has been cast into doubt and historians now think it may have been the entry gate to the nearby Temple of Diana. Today, the Trajan Arch of Merida is inconspicuously located on a normal pedestrian street.

Trajan Arch of Merida history

Founded in 25 BC, Emerita Augusta was a Roman Colonia and the provincial capital of Lusitania in present day Spain. The city was founded by Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the legions of the Cantabrian Wars and was situated at the intersection of several important provincial routes. Near to the Guadiana River and Prosperpina Dam, Emerita had 3 aqueducts serving a bustling provincial capital.

Located along the Cardo Maximus, Emerita’s main thoroughfare, the Trajan Arch connected to the city’s civic forum with its provincial forum – a forum particularly dedicated to the meetings and business associated with Emerita’s provincial status.

The forum, like many other Roman fora, consisted of a large square with an impressive portico and a large Temple to Diana in the middle. The grand arch was built with granite and originally faced with marble, reflecting the status of the city and lending to the arch’s triumphal function.

Trajan Arch of Merida today

Available to view any time, today the 13.97 metre-high and 5.7 metre-wide arch continues to welcome visitors to the city’s ancient Roman forum. Even without its marble decoration the arch stands tall among Mérida’s modern pedestrianised street. While the arch is attributed to Emperor Trajan, its name is slightly arbitrary as the original commemorative inscription was lost centuries ago.

Looking over the pavement’s rail you can see the hinges that would have closed the monumental doors belonging to the arch. The best time to visit the arch is at nighttime when it is spectacularly lit up from below, testifying to its ancient grandiosity.

Getting to the Trajan Arch of Merida

If using public transport, the arch is a 10 minute walk from Mérida’s train station on the Intercity, MD and REG.EXP lines. For those driving, it is a 2 hour drive along the A-66 from Seville and there is all-day parking at Parking Cervantes, a 6 minute walk away.

Spain is culture

In this section you can search all our contents throughout the different stages in the history of art in Spain, to find styles such as Baroque, Gothic, Mudejar and many, many more.

Modernism and Avant-garde movements The turn of the century brought new winds of modernity. The aesthetic sensibility of the time was marked by a different, freer attitude towards art and life.

Trajan Arch of Merida - History

An inscription on the palace's foundation stone, today located in the city's archaeological museum, explains that the Alcazaba of Merida was constructed on an earlier Roman site in the year 835 by the governor 'Abd Allah ibn Kulaib, for the Emir, 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam. This stronghold overlooks the Guadiana River and the adjacent Roman bridge. It contributed to safeguarding the region as it was one in a series of fortresses constructed along the Christian border with Islamic southern Spain.

Built using Roman and Visigothic masonry, the fortification measures approximately 130 square meters and is buttressed by four rectangular corner bastions with towers scattered between them on each side, usually symmetrically. The main entrance, featuring horseshoe arches, opens on the north side and proceeds into a small courtyard that leads both into the city and the inner citadel. Once castellated, the walls extend 2.7 meters thick and introduce the earliest example in Spain of an albarrani, a tower that extends from the palace to connect with a bridge. Dating to the same period as the walls, a large cistern, or aljibe , provided a direct source of water from the river into the fortress by means of a vaulted stone corridor with Visigothic pilasters. Two staircases lead deep into the cistern's pool for retrieving water. Overall, the Alcazaba is reminiscent of Syrian building technique.

While it had been bequeathed to the Order of Santiago under succeeding Christian rule, this fortress today serves as a museum.

Creswell, K. A. C.1989. A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture. Rev. ed. Allan, James W. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 302-303.

Goodwin, Godfrey. 1990. Islamic Spain. London: Penguin Group, 125-126.

Prince, Danforth and Porter, Darwin. 2003. Frommer's Spain 2003. New York: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 236-7.

Michell, George. ed. 1978. Architecture of the Islamic World Its History and Social Meaning. London: Thames & Hudson, 214.

Arch of Trajan, Mérida, Extremadura, Spain. - stock photo

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Cornalvo Dam, Spain

The Cornalvo Dam in Spain, also built by the Romans between the 1st and 2nd century AD, is the third oldest operational dam in the world. It is a gravity dam located on the Albarregas River, a tributary of the Guadiana, at a distance of 15km from Mérida.

The dam is 194m long and 24m high. Its masonry wall is constructed of cells, filled with stones and clay and faced with mortar. It held the record for being the highest dam outside Italy when it was commissioned. It currently supplies drinking water to the City of Merida.

Location and Contact:

  • Contact person: Mérida Tourist Information Office
  • Tel.:+34 924 33 07 22
  • Fax: +34 924 82 20 36
  • Email: [email protected]
  • Website address: www.turismomerida.org

This arch was erected as part of the structure providing entry to a temple for imperial worship It is now the only one left of the three that existed formerly.

In the town of Mérida there stands a colossal Roman arch which had the function of an access gate to an enormous temple for imperial worship.

The doorway was comprised of three arches, the central one of which remains, rising 15 metres up from the piles. The structure was made of granite ashlars.

Nowadays one can see the arch without its gate and marble cladding. And the inscriptions that it once displayed have been erased by the passage of time. It was located on the cardo maximus, the road that crossed the city from north to south, and where the paving of the forum or public square began.

Arch of Trajan

The name of this object is called the Arch of Trajan which is in Rome. It is a triumphal arch made in 114-118 C.E., commemorating emperor Trajan of Rome. It was built at the point where the road entered Benevento. Trajan is one of the great emperors of that ruled in old Roman times. Even the inscription on the arch’s attic presents Trajan as “all things to all people”. This triumphal arch is made of marble, so it was off white mostly and smooth, with a little wear to it because it’s so old. As far as size goes it stands at 15.6m in height and 8.6m in width. This triumphal is in the form of roman imperial art. This arch has one single barrel-vaulted entryway which is 15.60 m high and 8.60 m wide and has reliefs sculptures in it as well. The reliefs display a few moments in Trajan’s life. On the outside panels the relief displays homage of the divinities of the province's countryside and founding of provincial colonies. On the inside panels the reliefs show Trajan being welcomed by the Capitoline Triad and Trajan in the Forum Boarium. On the frieze the relief displays Trajan’s march of victory over Dacia. There are other scenes on the arch such as Trajan’s arrival in Rome, the concession of Roman citizenship to the auxiliaries, Trajan welcomed by the Senate and the Roman People and the Equestrian order. The arch was restored about several times due to earthquakes and aging.

King’s College. “Monuments: Arch of Trajan”. April 05, 2018. Monuments: Arch of Trajan · Art of Making.

The Forum and Markets of Trajan

Trajan tasked his architect with moving an entire hill to make room for this extravagant public space.

Apollodorus of Damascus, The Forum of Trajan, dedicated 112 C.E., Rome

Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E., Rome

An emperor worth celebrating

Marble bust of Trajan, c. 108-117 C.E., 68.5 cm high (The British Museum) (photo: Chris Stroup, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Marcus Ulpius Traianus, now commonly referred to as Trajan, reigned as Rome’s emperor from 98 until 117 C.E. A military man, Trajan was born of mixed stock—part Italic, part Hispanic—into the gens Ulpia (the Ulpian family) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (modern Spain) and enjoyed a career that catapulted him to the heights of popularity, earning him an enduring reputation as a “good emperor.”

Trajan was the first in a line of adoptive emperors that concluded with Marcus Aurelius. These emperors were chosen for the “job” based not on bloodlines, but on their suitability for rule most of them were raised with this role in mind from their youth. This period is often regarded as the height of the Roman empire’s prosperity and stability. The ancient Romans were so fond of Trajan that they officially bestowed upon him the epithetical title optimus princeps or “the best first-citizen.” It is safe to say that the Romans felt Trajan was well worth celebrating—and celebrate him they did. A massive architectural complex—referred to as the Forum of Trajan (Latin: Forum Traiani or, less commonly, Forum Ulpium) was devoted to Trajan’s career and, in particular, his great military successes in his wars against Dacia (now Romania).

Unique under the heavens

The Forum of Trajan was the final, and largest, of Rome’s complex of so-called “Imperial fora”—dubbed by at least one ancient writer as “a construction unique under the heavens” (Amm. Marc. 16.10.15). Fora is the Latin plural of forum—meaning a public, urban square for civic and ritual business. A series of Imperial fora, beginning with Iulius Caesar, had been built adjacent to the earlier Roman Forum by a series of emperors. The Forum of Trajan was inaugurated in 112 C.E., although construction may not have been complete, and was designed by the famed architect Apollodorus of Damascus.

View from the Markets of Trajan of the remains of the eastern exedra and the eastern portico of the main square of the Forum of Trajan, looking toward the Basilica Ulpia (in the upper left) (photo, CC BY-SA 3.0)

The Forum of Trajan is elegant—it is rife with signs of top-level architecture and decoration. All of the structures, save the two libraries (which were built of brick), were built of stone. There is a great deal of exotic, imported marble and many statues, including gilded examples. The forum was composed of a main square (measuring c. 200 x 120 meters) that was flanked by porticoes (an extended, roofed colonnade), as well as by exedrae (semicircular, recessed spaces) on the eastern (above) and western sides.

Plan of the Forum of Trajan. Note that the traditional site of the temple of the deified Trajan is shown, but is replaced by a shrine located at the southern side of the forum’s main square (following R. Meneghini) (image: CC BY-SA 3.0, annotated by Smarthistory)

A contested element of the reconstruction of the forum complex is a temple dedicated to the deified Trajan (the deceased emperor had been declared a god). Traditional reconstructions place this temple behind the column, although a recent reconstruction favored by Dr. Roberto Meneghini does not agree with this conjecture, instead preferring to place a shrine to the deified Trajan at the southern end of the forum abutting the retaining wall of the neighboring Forum of Augustus. Scholars continue to debate the nature and position of this temple.

The main structure at the center of the forum complex is the massive Basilica Ulpia, and beside that stood two libraries that flanked the Column of Trajan, an honorific monument bearing an elaborate program of sculpted relief.

Remains of the Basilica Ulpia (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Paved in white marble: The forum square (Area Fori)

The main square of the forum was once a vast space, screened by architecture on all sides and paved in white marble. Several rows of trees, and perhaps rows of statues, ran parallel to the porticoes. Entry to the forum square was from the south, by way of a triumphal arch surmounted by a statue of Trajan riding in a triumphal chariot. Although the arch itself is no longer extant, it is depicted on a coin issued c. 112-115 C.E. (below).

Gold coin (aureus) struck at Rome c. 112-115 C.E. (19 mm, 7.13 g, 7h). The legend reads “IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P (“To the emperor Trajan Augustus Germanicus Dacicus, Pontifex Maximus, [holder of] tribunician power, in his sixth consulship, father of his country.” The coins depicts a laureate Trajan (draped, and cuirassed bust right) seen from behind on the observe side. On the reverse the Arcus Traiani of the Forum of Trajan is seen. This is presented as a hexastyle building facade, crowned by a frontal chariot drawn by six horses. Three figures stand to the left and right, while four statues occupy niches in the arches below. The reverse legend reads “FORVM TRAIAN[A]” (image)

Captured Dacian, 106-112 (Vatican Museum) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The forum square (116 x 95 meters) has an overriding martial theme, reminding viewers and visitors that the forum was constructed from the proceeds (manubiae) of Trajan’s successful military campaigns against the Dacians (101–102, 105–106 C.E.). The porticoes were decorated with statuary and military standards (official emblems of the legions), as described by the ancient author Aulus Gellius: “All along the roof of the colonnades of the forum of Trajan gilded statues of horses and representations of military standards are placed, and underneath is written Ex manubiis [from the spoils of war] …” (Attic Nights 13.25.1).

The decorative program also included statues of captured Dacian prisoners (left) and, it seems, statues of notable Roman statesmen and generals that were set in the intercolumnar spaces of the porticoes.

At the center of the Forum square stood a bronze equestrian statue of Trajan, the Equus Traiani. While the statue itself does not survive, the occasion of a visit to Rome by Constantius II (in 357 C.E.) preserves a mention of the famous equestrian: “So he [Constantius II] abandoned all hope of attempting anything like it, and declared that he would and could imitate simply Trajan’s horse, which stands in the middle of the court with the emperor on its back.” (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15) We also see the equestrian statue depicted on a silver denarius struck at Rome c. 112-114/5 C.E. (below).

Silver coin, Denarius (19mm, 3.35 g, 7h), struck 112-114/115 C.E IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, equestrian statue of Trajan facing left, holding spear and sword (or small Victory) (image)

The massive Basilica Ulpia

As an architectural type, the basilica is uniquely Roman and served various civic and juridical purposes. The habit of planners from the first century B.C.E. onwards had been to prefer to use the basilica as a framing device, so as to have it communicate with the flanks of a forum square. We see this in many cases, although with some variation. In the case of the Forum of Trajan the massive and monumental Basilica Ulpia is constructed at the northern edge of the open courtyard. It thus serves to bisect the complex, with the portico-lined courtyard lying to its east and the libraries and the Column of Trajan to its west.

Remains of the Basilica Ulpia in the foreground, and the Column of Trajan in the middle ground (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The basilica is massive—its overall length is some 169 meters and the interior nave is 25 meters wide. It is apsidal at both ends, with a raised central floor, and the main hall has a double surround of columns (96 in total) that were probably of white or yellow marble, in the Corinthian order. The basilica was also famous in antiquity for its gilded bronze roof tiles, as commented on by Pausanias, who remarked that the building was “worth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze” (Description of Greece 5.12.6).

Artist’s view of exterior elevation (J. Gaudet, 1867)

The Markets of Trajan (dedicated c. 110 C.E.)

Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E. the Militia Tower is visible in the center, rising above the markets (photo: Vašek Vinklát, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Adjacent to the Forum of Trajan is a separate architectural complex attributed to Trajan that is commonly referred to as the Markets of Trajan. This multi-level commercial complex was built against the flank of the Quirinal Hill which had to be excavated for the purpose. The complex of the markets takes its planning cue from the eastern hemicycle of the Forum of Trajan. The ruins of the markets today preserve 170 rooms and the complex covers a space of approximately 110 by 150 meters its walls stood to 35 meters above the level of the pavement of the Forum of Trajan. The original extension is hard to ascertain, based in part upon subsequent re-use and construction in the Medieval period (and later). The archaeologist Corrado Ricci (1858-1934) cleared the ruins in the twentieth century, but the markets themselves have received comparatively less attention than the adjacent forum.

Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan, 112 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)The function of the markets was mercantile—indeed the markets may have been designed to relocate shops (tabernae) and offices that were displaced by the Trajanic building project. The ground floor offices (at the forum level) were likely occupied by cashiers of the imperial treasury (arcarii caesariani), while upper level rooms may been leased out or used by imperial officials associated with the grain dole (annona).

Apollodorus of Damascus, The Markets of Trajan (Market Hall), 112 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The great, vaulted market hall (above) is an ambitious and brilliant design—just as with the rest of the complex, reflecting the skills of the designer / architect who executed the project. The medieval Militia Tower (Torre delle Milizie ) (12th century) and the now-demolished convent of Santa Caterina a Magnanapoli utilized portions of the structure of the market’s buildings.

Plan of the Markets of Trajan (in relation to the Forum of Trajan)

The architect – Apollodorus of Damascus

Portrait considered to be that of Apollodorus of Damascus (Munich Glyptothek) (photo: Gun Powder Ma, CC BY-SA 3.0)

CC BY-SA 3.0) Apollodorus of Damascus was a military engineer and architect who was active during the first quarter of the second century C.E. He accompanied the emperor Trajan on his campaigns in Dacia and is famous for building a bridge across the Danube river that was both described by ancient authors and depicted in art. The relief from the Column of Trajan depicts the bridge in the background (see below). Built c. 105 C.E., the segmental arch bridge was the first across the lower Danube and allowed Roman soldiers to cross the river easily. Apollodorus, who is described as “the master-builder of the whole work” is credited with the project (Procopius, Buildings, 4.6.11-14 tr. H.B. Dewing). Upon return from the Dacian Wars, Apollodorus is thought to have been the architect behind the project that produced the Forum and Column of Trajan, as well as the adjacent markets. A textual tradition is preserved by Cassius Dio that has Apollodorus running afoul of (and being executed by) Hadrian, Trajan’s successor, although it is unclear whether credence should be given to this story (Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.4 tr. Cary).

Relief from the Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., showing the bridge in the background and in the foreground Trajan is shown sacrificing by the Danube river

Significance of the “construction unique under the heavens”

The Forum of Trajan earned a great deal of praise in antiquity—and it has been the focus of scholarly study perhaps since 1536 when Pope Paul III ordered the first clearing of the area around the base of the Column of Trajan. Paul III would then protect the column itself in 1546 by appointing a caretaker to look after it. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw various artists and architects produce renderings and plans of the forum and its monuments. Among the most famous of these are those of Dosio (c. 1569) and Etiénne Du Pérac (1575). In terms of public architecture in Imperial Rome, the Forum of Trajan complex is a crowning achievement in its vast monumentality. The execution of its sophisticated and elegant design surpassed all of its predecessors in the complex of forum spaces in the city. The value of vast public spaces in the city of Rome cannot be underestimated. For the average city dwellers accustomed to narrow, dim, crowded streets the soaring, the gleaming open space of the forum, bounded by elaborate architecture and sculpture, would have had a powerful psychological effect. The fact that the monuments glorified a revered leader also served to create and reinforce important ideological messages among the Romans. Overall the role of public architecture in the Roman city, and the Roman consciousness, is an important reminder of the ways in which Romans used built space to establish and perpetuate messages about identity and ideology.

Vestigi delle antichita di Roma, Tiuoli, Pozzuolo et altri luochi, 1606 (Ægidio Sadeler engravings of reduced copies of Du Pérac’s Vestigi dell’antichità di Roma) (Getty Research Institute)

The enduring ruins, in this case cleared initially by the excavations sponsored by the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, stand as strong, and stark, reminders of these Roman realities. Modern viewers still extract and reinforce ideas about identity based on looking at and visiting the ruins. Even with these ruins we still come away with an idea about Trajan’s greatness and his martial accomplishments. We might, then, judge the architectural program to be a great success—so successful that a great many of our own public monuments still operate on the basis of conventions established in antiquity.

Additional resources:

J. C. Anderson, Historical Topography of the Imperial Fora (Brussels: Latomus, 1984).

R. Chenault, “Statues of Senators in the Forum of Trajan and the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity,” The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 102 (2012), pp. 103-132.

P. Gros, L’architecture romaine du début du 3e siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire 1. Les monuments publics (Paris: Picard, 1996).

L. Lancaster, “Building Trajan’s Markets,” American Journal of Archaeology 102.2 (Apr., 1998), pp. 283-308.

L. Lancaster, “Building Trajan’s Markets 2: The Construction Process,” American Journal of Archaeology 104.4 (Oct., 2000), pp. 755-785.

R. Leone, et al. Fori imperiali: demolizione e scavi: fotografie, 1924-1940 (Milan: Electa, 2007).

W. L. MacDonald, The Architecture of the Roman Empire 2 vols. (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1982-1986).

R. Meneghini, L. Messa, and L. Ungaro, Il foro di Traiano (Rome: Fratelli Palombi, 1990).

R. Meneghini, Il Foro e i Mercati di Traiano: Roma (Rome: Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1995).

J. E. Packer, K. L. Sarring, and R. M. Sheldon, “A New Excavation in Trajan’s Forum,” American Journal of Archaeology 87.2 (Apr., 1983), pp. 165-172.

J. E. Packer, “The West Library in the Forum of Trajan: The Architectural Problems and Some Solutions,” In Eius virtutis studiosi : classical and postclassical studies in memory of Frank Edward Brown (1908-1988) (Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 43, Symposium Papers XXII), edited by A. R. Scott and R. T. Scott, 420-444. (Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1993).

J. E. Packer, “Trajan’s Forum again: the Column and the Temple of Trajan in the master plan attributed to Apollodorus(?),” Journal of Roman Archaeology 7 (January 1994) pp 163-182.

J. E. Packer, “Report from Rome: The Imperial Fora, a Retrospective,”American Journal of Archaeology 101.2 (April 1997), pp. 307-330.

J. E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: a study of the monuments. 2 v. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

J. E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: a study of the monuments in brief (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

J. E. Packer and J. Burge, “Templum Divi Traiani Parthici et Plotinae: a debate with R. Meneghini,” Journal of Roman Archaeology (January 2003) pp. 103-136.

Platner, S. B. and T. Ashby. 1929. “Forum Traiani.” In A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Oxford: Clarendon Press) (Perseus Project)

L. Ungaro et al. The Museum of the Imperial Forums in Trajan’s market (Milan: Electa, 2007).

P. H. von Blanckenhagen, “The Imperial Fora,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 13.4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 21-26.

A. Uggeri, Della Basilica Vlpia nel Foro traiano: istoria e ristaurazione agli amanti delle antichita romane (Rome, 1830) (viewable online via Arachne)

M. Waelkens, “From a Phrygian Quarry: The Provenance of the Statues of the Dacian Prisoners in Trajan’s Forum at Rome,” American Journal of Archaeology 89.4 (Oct., 1985) pp. 641-653.

G. Wightman, “The Imperial Fora of Rome: Some Design Considerations,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 56.1 (March 1997) pp. 64-88.

Column of Trajan

Trajan expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest extent, celebrating his victories with this monumental column.

Column of Trajan, completed 113 C.E., Luna marble, Rome. Dedicated to Emperor Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus b. 53 , d. 117 C.E.) in honor of his victory over Dacia (now Romania) 101-02 and 105-06 C.E.

Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., Rome, dedicated to Emperor Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus b. 53 , d. 117 C.E.) in honor of his victory over Dacia (now Romania) 101-02 and 105-06 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Triumph

Returning from Dacia triumphant—100 days of celebrations

Denarius (Roman coin), obverse: Trajan in profile reverse: Dacian seated right on pile of arms, his hands bound behind him, silver, c. 103-11 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, CM.BU.240-R)

Iconography and themes

The crossing of the Roman Army over the Danube River in the first Dacian War (the large figure is a personification of the Danube) (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., Rome (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The execution of the frieze is meticulous and the level of detail achieved is astonishing. While the column does not carry applied paint now, many scholars believe the frieze was initially painted. The sculptors took great care to provide settings for the scenes, including natural backgrounds, and mixed perspectival views to offer the maximum level of detail. Sometimes multiple perspectives are evident within a single scene. The overall, unifying theme is that of the Roman military campaigns in Dacia, but the details reveal additional, more subtle narrative threads.

Battle between Romans and Dacians (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Emperor (fifth from the lower right) oversees construction (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Trajan addresses troops holding spear (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Base (detail), Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E. (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The emperor Trajan figures prominently in the frieze. Each time he appears, his position is commanding and the iconographic focus on his person is made clear. We see Trajan in various scenarios, including addressing his troops ( ad locutio ) and performing sacrifices. The fact that the figures in the scenes are focused on the figure of the emperor helps to draw the viewer’s attention to him.

Specifications of the Column and construction

Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., plan, elevation, and section

The column itself is made from fine-grained Luna marble and stands to a height of 38.4 meters (c. 98 feet) atop a tall pedestal. The shaft of the column is composed of 19 drums of marble measuring c. 3.7 meters (11 feet) in diameter, weighing a total of c. 1,110 tons. The topmost drum weighs some 53 tons. A spiral staircase of 185 steps leads to the viewing platform atop the column. The helical sculptural frieze measures 190 meters in length (c. 625 feet) and wraps around the column 23 times. A total of 2,662 figures appear in the 155 scenes of the frieze, with Trajan himself featured in 58 scenes.

Significance and influence

Gold aureus showing Trajan’s Column, Roman, early 2nd century C.E. (The British Museum)

Aegidius Sadeler, view of the column of Trajan, shown with its pedestal dug out from the earth, surrounded by buildings at the base of the Quirinal Hill, Rome, from the series “Ruins of the antiquity of Rome, Tivoli, Pozzuoli, and other places,” 1606, etching and engraving, plate 31 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)


The inscription on the attic records the foundation of the colony on the part of Trajan in the year 100. The decorative fabric of the monument, with the sides of the lateral arches detached from the wall, was taken with a curvilinear pediment that forms two protruding and strongly contrasted lateral aediculae. This and the lavish decoration of the architectural elements, all suggest a later dating. [1]

The arch together with the whole archaeological site of Timgad, has been listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1982. [2]

The arch reaches a height of 12 metres, with a central arch of 6 metres in height which permitted the passage of vehicles that have left deep ruts in the ground under the archway. The lateral arches, each 3.75 metres high, were reserved for pedestrians.

Above the lateral arches on both sides are deep rectangular niches, which are flanked by aediculae with smooth-stemmed Corinthian columns of coloured marble on shelves. The niches were designed to hold statues, which are now lost. The whole assemblage of each lateral arch and niche was framed by two red Corinthian columns, detached from the walls and supported by pedestals. The entablature that runs across the wall above the lateral arches protrudes above the columns, and a curvilinear pediment rests on it in turn. The attic must have been surmounted with a group of monumental statues.

Other sculpture was added to the arch in later times. This includes a statue of the gods Mars and one of Concordia erected under Emperor Septimius Severus by Lucius Licinius Optatianus, on the occasion of his election as flamen-for-life of the colonia. [3]

Watch the video: Arch of Constantine (July 2022).


  1. Moramar

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  2. Peredur

    It is more than the word!

  3. Chaunce

    This message is incomparable

  4. Traian

    Even if it was, don't rub it into my soul ..

  5. Nizam

    the answer very valuable

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