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What machine technology did the Egyptians have to build the great pyramids?

What machine technology did the Egyptians have to build the great pyramids?

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Reading the "Account of Egypt" by Herodotus, it says of the great pyramid of "Cheops" (Macauley translation):

This pyramid was made after the manner of steps which some called "rows" and others "bases": and when they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with machines made of short pieces of timber, raising them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported.

This may just be a Greek or late Egyptian technology being anachronistically supposed to have been used in the past, but nevertheless, it is interesting to ponder what kind of machines the Egyptians could have had that fit this description. Some of the larger stones in the pyramid weight 10 metric tonnes, so the machines would have to have that capacity.

The only machines I have found depicted in ancient Egyptian wall reliefs and paintings have been chariots and balances. I have not been able to find any examples of cranes.

One book I found is called "Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture" by Somers and Engelbach (1930) which seems to describe some of their technology for construction. Another book is "Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology" by Nicholson and Shaw.

Well the answer is they didn't. The pyramids were built by pulling blocks up on ramps.

^ that is probably what it looked like.

Herodotus's machine did exist according to painting but it was probably not used to build the pyramids like he said. But it was used for getting water out of the nile river.

The second theory centers on Herodotus's machines. Until recently Egyptian farmers used a wooden, cranelike device called a shadouf to raise water from the Nile for irrigation. This device can be seen in ancient tomb paintings, so we know it was available to the pyramid builders. The idea is that hundreds of these cranes at various levels on the pyramid were used to lift the blocks. One problem with this theory is that it would involve a tremendous amount of timber and Egypt simply didn't have forests to provide the wood. Importing so much lumber would have been impractical. Large timbers for shipbuilding were imported from Lebanon, but this was a very expensive enterprise.

Perhaps an even more fatal flaw to the crane theory is that there is nowhere to place all these cranes. The pyramid blocks tend to decrease in size higher up the Great Pyramid. I climbed it dozens of times in the 1970s and '80s, when it was permitted, and toward the top, the blocks sometimes provide only 18 inches of standing room, certainly not enough space for cranes large enough to lift heavy blocks of stone. The crane theory can't explain how the blocks of the Great Pyramid were raised. So how was it done?

--from http://archive.archaeology.org/0705/etc/pyramid.html

What about the 5 levels above the King's Chamber that consist of rows of 70-plus-ton granite slabs? No amount of human labor can drag that weight up that steep of an incline. Furthermore, what were these ramps proposed to have been made out of? And where are they? Sand would collapse under the weight, and as was noted, timber wouldn't have been used. Are you going to tell me they made them out of the blocks themselves? And then removed all of them once they were done?? Ludicrous. No, I'm afraid the answer is NOT that they were constructed via ramps, and that this is still an open mystery.

How Would a PM Build the Great Pyramids of Giza?: Dinner Meeting Summary

One single person can make a huge difference. We know it’s true, and it could have been the title of John Salguero’s informative presentation at our Dunwoody Dinner last Monday evening. (Though Project Managers and Pyramids sounds more intriguing, right?)

The story traces the roots of Project Management all the way back to the awesome Pyramids of ancient Egypt, constructed nearly 5000 years ago. Mr. Salguero suggested that maybe this makes the Project Manager the world’s oldest profession, and then asked us to close our eyes. What we then imagined was the Egyptian desert: up to 120 degrees, where rain water evaporates before hitting the ground, and you’d better have a blanket at night. Less than 10% of the population was literate, the average life expectancy was 35 years, and the infant mortality rate was 20-50%. This is the grueling context.

Mr. Salguero advanced three hypotheses .
1. Slaves did not build the Pyramids.
2. Slaves were treated very well.
3. The Pyramid builders were skilled tradesmen and paid laborers.

According to traditional archeology, a workforce of 100,000 labored 40+ years to build these wonders of the world. Working under the Pharaoh, the leader of this monumental undertaking was named Imhotep. This “First Architect” may also be thought of as the first Project Manager, and his task would have been impossible without having exceptional abilities to plan, organize, and manage projects.

John asserts that Imhotep has been wrongly portrayed by Hollywood. His real story is that of a commoner who performed countless acts of kindness, worked outside of the scope of the project, and valued everyone’s life equally by taking extraordinary measures to protect his people. His life legacy included the Pyramid scheme, in which he had to invent everything from scratch. His practice was to train two junior architects, who then trained two others, and so on. This duplication method was implemented in every division of labor. Today we call it “Train the Trainer.” Historians also give Imhotep the credit of starting the first medical school, and John credits him with also starting the first PMI, and the first Project Management School. Necessarily, some of his horizontal sub-projects were also in the sectors of transportation, food & beverage, and healthcare.

Human life is requisite for any civilization to survive. In the earliest days, the same word was used to mean both human and Egyptian. Over 1000 years, as foreign peoples mixed with Egyptians, society changed and the value of human life increased.

Like every other sphere of cooperative endeavor in humanity, it’s relationships, relationships, relationships that are crucial to success, and there is no exception for the PM. According to John, Imhotep built and nurtured relationships with honesty, integrity, compassion, and acts of kindness.

John argued that the Egyptians did possess the technology to build the pyramids. Proving your story with evidence is critical, and one of your greatest tools as a PM. It must be timely, legitimate, and able to stand up to scrutiny. You must seek out the evidence corroborate it with documentation, lessons learned, and interviews of SMEs. Read your audience and customize your presentation of the evidence to them, being persuasive yet careful not to change its essence or origin.

This was Mr. Salguero’s mission in his PMI presentation: to tell the story as he sees it, to illuminate and clarify some of the oldest of humanity’s history, and to show its timeless relevance to our modern workaday world as practicing Project Managers.

Probing Question: How were the Egyptian pyramids built?

The Aztecs, Mayans and ancient Egyptians were three very different civilizations with one very large similarity: pyramids. However, of these three ancient cultures, the Egyptians set the standard for what most people recognize as classic pyramid design: massive monuments with a square base and four smooth-sided triangular sides, rising to a point. (The Aztecs and Mayans built their pyramids with tiered steps and a flat top.)

The ancient Egyptians probably chose that distinctive form for their pharaohs' tombs because of their solar religion, explains Donald Redford, professor of classics and ancient Mediterranean studies at Penn State. The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have sat upon a pyramid-shaped mound of earth which had emerged from the primordial sea. The pyramid's shape is thought to have symbolized the sun's rays.

According to Redford, "The Egyptians began using the pyramid form shortly after 2700 B.C., and the great heyday of constructing them for royalty extended for about a thousand years, until about 1700 B.C." The first pyramid was built by King Djoser during Egypt's Third Dynasty. His architect, Imohtep, created a step pyramid by stacking six mastabas, rectangular buildings of the sort in which earlier kings had been buried. The largest and most well-known pyramids in Egypt are the Pyramids at Giza, including the Great Pyramid of Giza designed for Pharaoh Khufu.

For centuries, people have theorized how the great pyramids were built. Some have suggested that they must have been constructed by extraterrestrials, while others believe the Egyptians possessed a technology that has been lost through the ages.

But the process of building pyramids, while complicated, was not as colossal an undertaking as many of us believe, Redford says. Estimates suggest that between 20,000 and 30,000 laborers were needed to build the Great Pyramid at Giza in less than 23 years. By comparison, Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris took almost two hundred years to complete.

According to Redford, pharaohs traditionally began building their pyramids as soon as they took the throne. The pharaoh would first establish an "engineering department" composed of an overseer of all the king's construction work, a chief engineer, and an architect, as well as, in effect, a "department of manpower." The pyramids were usually placed on the western side of the Nile because the pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun disc during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round. The two deciding factors when choosing a building site were its orientation to the western horizon where the sun set and the proximity to Memphis, the central city of ancient Egypt.

The cores of the pyramids were often composed of local limestone, says Redford. Finer quality limestone composed the outer layer of the pyramids, giving them a white sheen that could be seen from miles away. The capstone was usually made of granite, basalt, or another very hard stone and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) and would also be highly reflective in the bright sun.

The image most people have of slaves being forced to build the pyramids against their will is incorrect, Redford says. "The concept of slavery is a very complicated problem in ancient Egypt," he points out, "because the legal aspects of indentured servitude and slavery were very complicated." The peasants who worked on the pyramids were given tax breaks and were taken to 'pyramid cities' where they were given shelter, food and clothing.

According to Redford, ancient Egyptian quarrying methods—the processes for cutting and removing stone—are still being studied. Scholars have found evidence that copper chisels were used for quarrying sandstone and limestone, for example, but harder stones such as granite and diorite would have required stronger materials. Dolerite, a hard, black igneous rock, was used in the quarries of Aswan to remove granite.

During excavation, massive dolerite "pounders" were used to pulverize the stone around the edge of the granite block that needed to be extracted. According to Redford, 60 to 70 men would pound out the stone. At the bottom, they rammed wooden pegs into slots they had cut, and filled the slots with water. The pegs would expand, splitting the stone, and the block was then slid down onto a waiting boat.

Teams of oxen or manpower were used to drag the stones on a prepared slipway that was lubricated with oil. Redford notes that a scene from a 19th century B.C. tomb in Middle Egypt depicts "an alabaster statue 20 feet high pulled by 173 men on 4 ropes with a man lubricating the slipway as the pulling went on."

Once the stones were at the construction site, ramps were built to get them into place on the pyramid. These ramps were made of mud brick and coated with chips of plaster to harden the surface. They were "wrap-around" style, rather than straight, Redford says, "because in laying the upper layers of a great pyramid, the gradient necessary for a straight ramp would be impossible."

"If they consistently raised the ramp course by course as the teams dragged their blocks up, they could have gotten them into place fairly easily," Redford explains, adding that at least one such ramp still exists today.

When answering to skepticism about how such heavy stones could have been moved without machinery, Redford says, "I usually show the skeptic a picture of 20 of my workers at an archaeological dig site pulling up a two-and-a-half ton granite block. I know it's possible because I was on the ropes, too."

Donald B. Redford, Ph.D., is professor in the Department of Classics and Mediterranean Studies, and can be reached at [email protected]

Editor's Note: This story has been updated since its original publication in 2008.

1. Pyramids Were Meant to Be Tombs

For the most part, it is strongly believed that the purpose of the pyramids in Egypt was to bury the Pharaohs, i.e., the monarch. According to Egyptian mythology, the dead must be buried with respect, so that they lead a good afterlife. For the pharaohs, tombs were built inside pyramids to protect their bodies. They were buried in sarcophagi (stone coffins) so that their bodies don’t decay and remain preserved. They were also buried with gold, jewels, silk, and other valuable items that would be useful to them in their afterlife.

But centuries ago, tomb robbers emptied these pyramids after discovering the value of these burials. Though they still stand unscathed on the exterior, the preserved bodies and mummies are no longer there. After that, tombs were created underground, where they were found years later.

This theory is supported by substantial evidence. When all the pyramids were carefully examined, archaeologists found scattered remains of sarcophagi, mummies, and jewels in the depths of a few. There were also inscriptions on the pyramid walls, which depicted the dead and their journey to the afterlife. In fact, in 1934, mummified remains of a foot were found in an Egyptian pyramid. It made sense that the Egyptians, who gave so much power and prestige to their rulers, would build an elaborate structure to pay respect to them even after their death, thus explaining why Egyptians built pyramids.

The shape of the pyramids also gives more weightage to this theory. They have slope-shaped sides with a pointed top. These slanted sides are meant to be rays of the Sun, and they are like that so that the spirits of the dead have ease in traveling to Heaven.

Still, many set out to disprove this theory. It was questioned why the pharaohs would have created such large structures to bury themselves, especially since sometimes one pharaoh would be responsible for the construction of multiple pyramids. Archaeologists also found that in the pyramids in Giza, which was the pyramid of Khufu, the chamber meant for the king, wasn’t decorated like it. So if you were sure tombs were the reason why Egyptians built pyramids, think again!

Mud-brick pyramids

The next dynasties comprise the so-called Middle Kingdom, a period of power and affluence. With the shortened chronology of Egypt advocated by some scholars,2 Joseph and then Jacob and his family may well have come to Egypt during the 12 th dynasty, and Moses may have been born before the dynasty ended.

Most of the pyramids built in this dynasty were made of millions of large, sun-dried mud bricks. Then the structure was faced with smooth stones to give the appearance of a true stone pyramid. However, the stones have long since been stolen, leaving only a huge pile of mud bricks.

The Jewish historian Josephus wrote concerning the Israelite slaves in Egypt, “They [the Egyptian taskmasters] set them also to build pyramids.”3 Most archaeologists dismiss this statement on the grounds that all the pyramid building had ended before the Israelites arrived in Egypt.

The biblical records

The mud-brick pyramid of Amenemhet III. He may well be the pharaoh who reigned at the time of Moses” internship in the king’s house.

Mud brick mixed with straw—perhaps like those the Israelites made ( Exodus 1:14 5:7–19 ).

However, by the shortened chronology the dates of the early dynasties would be reduced and the Israelites would have been in Egypt during the 12 th dynasty. Also, that would be consistent with the type of pyramids evident in that period, i.e., mud-brick. According to Exodus 5:7, Pharaoh told the taskmasters, “ You shall no longer give the people straw to make brick as before. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. ” It seems it is the archaeologists who have erred rather than Josephus.

There is also evidence that there were Asiatic (people from Syria or Palestine) slaves in Egypt during this dynasty. Dr Rosalie David, in her book The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt, wrote, “It is apparent that the Asiatics were present in the town in some numbers, and this may have reflected the situation elsewhere in Egypt. … Their exact homeland in Syria or Palestine cannot be determined … the reason for their presence in Egypt remains unclear.”4 But it is not unclear when we start with the Bible .

Sir Flinders Petrie and Rosalie David could not understand the reason for their presence in Egypt because they clung to the traditional dates for the 12 th dynasty of Egypt. These are from about 1990 to 1785 BC, whereas the biblical dates for the Israelite presence in Egypt would be from about 1660 to 1445 BC ( 1 Kings 6:1 ).

Significantly, these slaves suddenly disappeared, and traditional archaeologists do not know why. It is hardly normal for slaves to suddenly take off en masse, but Dr David wrote, “There are different opinions of how this first period of occupation at Kahun drew to a close. … The quantity, range and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind in the houses may indeed suggest that the departure was sudden and unpremeditated.”5

All these problems disappear when we start with the reliable history and chronology of the Bible .

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Egyptian Pyramids.

How did the egyptions make the pyramids so high with so little technology. I have read many explanations but am yet to know the truth!!What are your thoughts?

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Frankly, if aliens were involved in building the pyramids why didn’t they come up with something more impressive given advance intergalactic travel? Why doesn’t the archaeology of Egypt resemble Coruscant :D?

I think many folks assume the theory of evolution is absolute fact in all regards, so they “need” an alien mind that is above ours to understand mankind’s ability to think and produce like this many thousands of years ago.

I don’t. I assume God gave us a high level of intellect and information from day 1 even if we did evolve from a pre cursor. If evolution happened, it happened a little different than the scholastic folks think, IMO.

Weren’t the the blocks really big and heavy and solid? First time i’ve herd they are concrete. Surely there is a way to distinguish rock from concrete, no?

Concrete is one theory, or one component in a suite of theories about the pyramids. Yes, one can tell easily if a block could be made of ingredients like concrete or is whole stone.

Ah, but you forget the revisionist’s prerogative to claim whatever they like. The explanation I heard from one mouthpiece or another was that all those ‘failed’ pyramids were actually built after the Great Pyramid, in man’s pathetic attempt to mirror the works of the gods. Might’ve been season one of Ancient Aliens (the only season I could stomach).

of course how careless of me!

If you haven’t seen this yet, you may get a chuckle from it:

it’s getting to that level over at the Fantasy Channel.

I’m relatively new at this paleobabble stuff, but I didn’t think the argument was that we couldn’t build the pyramids with today’s technology. Rather, I understood that reasonably knowledgeable people who tried to build something similar with what we presume to be the ancients’ level of technology were unsuccessful. Is that right?

A lot of people presume that things like the pyramids “couldn’t be done” today (listening to just a few hours of shows like ancient aliens will make that clear). That of course isn’t a view shared by all, but it’s out there.

Here’s a man who can move huge heavy stones by himself using ancient technology. http://www.theforgottentechnology.com/
No need for aliens!

yep I have blogged here about Wally Wallington before. I show his DVD in my Egyptology class.

That proves nothing at all..It certainly doesn’t account for the massive logistical efforts required..I heard Barsoum on C2C and frankly, Christopher Dunn makes his (Barsoum’s) theory look second rate..I am open minded about all things and I do not trap myself into any system of dogmatic belief, but to look at Wallington’s theory and say “yep by golly that’s how those Egyptians did it”, is ridiculous! It is just another theory…You all seem to buy it in here though, hey lol..

Until Christoper Dunn submits his own views to peer review, he can’t claim to be better than anyone, or right, or to have stumped anyone. Maybe you can get him to submit his work to a refereed journal. Surely he’s not afraid to do that (but I have to wonder why he hasn’t done it).

And try to read more clearly. I didn’t say Wallington’s approach was the only thing used by Egyptians, or that Egyptians even used it. I said it shows one possible method by which these sorts of achievements can be explained.

I’m the one laughing now, since anyone can go back and read the posts and my replies to comments, and so see that you’ve mis-characterized what I said. Nice try.

I have read a book that make you feel you know nothing, it’s called My BIG TOE by Thomas Campbell it may also humble you and expand your awareness. I would like to thank you though for conducting your existesive work on stichins lies consider this recommendation what you will

Lots of thinks and opinions.

Don’t attempt to speak for everyone, and don’t assume to know what you ‘believe’ while casting stones made by your opinions/beliefs of what other people MAY believe.

I don’t pretend to know what other people know.
I also don’t pretend to believe what other people believe.
Either way, it’s belief. No offense, I’m pointing out the obvious here.
What do I believe? Try not to assume…
I do know this Annunaki alien stuff is junk. That’s not a belief or an opinion.

Most people don’t like to read anymore, now they can SEE) I will use this video. Thumbs UP!

We have trucks capable of carrying 400 tons, the largest stone weighs

80 tons.
We have mountable cranes able to lift 100 tons up to 100 meters.
We have flotable cranes able to lift 3,000 tons.
We have lasers, energy shields, hydraulics.
We can build a pyramid, 73% more accurate, with only 1% of the men force and in half the “supposed” time (10 years).

It’ll be done just like how the cargo ships are filled. Guy in the crane pilling rocks . . .

People forget what the Pyramid is, it’s just rock over rock over rock- no concrete-.
It’ll just take some megalomaniac with enough money to build it.

I’m sick of tired of pseudo-scientist claiming we can’t re-build the pyramids.

Looking at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a4VeaEvRM8#t=6m , the hypothesis the Great Pyramid could have been built with concrete hardly seems credible. Needless to say, the ‘aliens did it’ hypothesis is far more ridiculous.

I don’t know of anyone who would say it was built *entirely* of concrete, but the idea that some blocks could have been fabricated has been validated by chemical engineers (but whether it was really employed is a separate issue).

More up to date research accepts that the pyramids were built by humans. Using modern measuring equipment to analyse the stone quarries shows that the cutting and drilling equipment used to build the pyramids was superior to that being used today. A good example of this is after analysing trepanned holes in river bed granite that was used in the construction of the Giza complex shows that the tool bit had a feed rate much faster than any drills we have today, in the order of tens of times faster. The measurements were taken by surface analysis of the grooves in the hole sides left by the drill bits they used. Some of these trepan holes are very well preserved by river bed silt, these discoveries were first made in the 1960’s and recently confirmed using laboratory equipment. The hole sides show exactly the same pattern as those from our current high power drilling equipment, that being a classic corkscrew pattern left by the bit as it cuts through and feeds into the rock.
Modern theory also shows many pyramids were build as power plants but again the mainstream still quotes from books with outdated and disproven ideas.

I’d agree that we could indeed build them today but the question is what types of advanced skills and knowledge did the ancients possess in the past and how long did it take to acquire them?. If you look at the evidences from other earlier cultures, it looks to be that there are many evidences of cultures arising around the same time or earlier with similar skills in astronomy, math, geometry, stonework and unified construction skills, etc.. The Carahunge site in Armenia and Gobekli Tepe in Turkey among others predate the ones in the Egypt/Middle East or at least were co-existent if one questions the dating methods and rise of cultures/time periods.

Another interesting documentary… “The Revelation of the Pyramids”…narrated by Brian Cox…which ties together many ancient megalithic sites, evidences of higher skills and knowledge in the past, etc.. Personally, I think the Egyptians and other cultures may have used stone ball bearings/tracks to move numerous large stone blocks during construction…we find tens of thousands of precisely machined round or cylindrical bowls and vases in Egypt of some of the hardest rocks on Earth…granite and diorite. It’s likely to me they were used as ball bearings or rollers before being re-purposed as bowls and vases, etc.. and perhaps the secret of their use was not written down or depicted in work scenes we find so as to prevent other nearby cultures from copying their efforts. Stone balls or marbles are found in a number of other megalithic sites such as Stonehenge and others.

The idea of “cultures rising suddenly at around the same time” is a myth, but an understandable one. WE have that perception because of the invention of writing. Building technologies vary widely (in terms of eras and dates), but in the ANE, for instance, we get the mythical notion that the Egyptians, for example, suddenly sprout high culture and knowledge at a certain date — usually corresponding to when they began to write things down. But a people could have had knowledge of any given number of subjects (e.g., astronomy or engineering) before learning to write. Once writing was established and used on a wide scale, that use creates the false impression that the knowledge being recorded “came into existence” at the same time. But pre-literate cultures knew lots of things (and megalithic architecture is a good example and your samples are good ones about seeing advantage to certain abilities and protecting that). The point is twofold: (1) we can’t know for sure how long it took a culture to develop a technology, though certain technologies and archaeological finds allow reasonable guesses and (2) we can’t assume technological innovations just popped into the collective mind of a culture — as though outside divine or alien intervention was the cause.

HAHA you’re so ignorant. It is humanly impossible to build these in the short amount of time that they built them without some sort of foreign help. They had to find a large enough quarry of rock, break off a piece of it, shape it, lug it to the build site, and lift. A lot of their build was even so precise and perfect you can’t fit a razor or a card in between the “gaps” of the rocks. Their angles are perfect, carvings are remarkable, and they are EXACTLY 100 times pi (great pyramid). They were far more advanced than we are now, and it wasn’t just by themselves..

LOL – so precision means aliens … ? (and you exaggerate the precision). You might want to try reading some of the research archived on the site, but I doubt that will happen. Call me crazy.

ok, haha, you tell yourself that. why don’t you ask the federal government to rebuild the great pyramid the exact same way? short asnwer, they won’t because they know damn well they can’t. It doesn’t take much thought to realize that our best CRANES can’t lift most of the stones even when they work together. have you seen the kings chamber? apparently that stone came from a quarry 500 miles away. yes, lol, i believe that our best technology can’t pick it up but somehow these primitive people with bronze hammers and rope could hall these things across the desert. King Tuts sarchophagus had bores in it that was concluded to be made by a DIAMOND COATED DRILL.

unfortunately, this is all utterly wrong and bogus — as the scholarship on the subject has shown many times over. The federal government couldn’t run its own cafeteria (literally – Google it while you’re not reading the research archived here). I wouldn’t ask them to run a lemonade stand. The feds aren’t authorities on anything except wasting our money.It’s really sad when the authority figure you think of is the federal government.

Oh, by no means do i think of the government as the true authority. Obviously the fortune 500 run things, not the feds. But you’re completely missing the point. Im using the gov as an example. U seem to overlook the fact that WE CANT MOVE THEM TODAY….WE CANT MOVE THEM TODAY! got it through your head yet? Ok ill say it 1and more time for ya WE CANT MOVE THEM TODAY! I challenge your “scholarships” to lift up 90and tons of granite and limestone, its sad tha use little factoids about the government. Typical yellow journalism flaws

What are talking about? The average weight of a pyramid block is 2.5 tons, about 5000lbs. A sikorsky CH-53E (helicopter) can lift 36,000lbs. The worlds largest cran can lift 1200 tons that’s 2,645,000 pounds.

Maybe the ancients used helicopters then..after all theyre depicted on the wall of the temple at Dendera.Mike will tell you they’re not but thats a matter of opinion,noone believes thats an accident caused by overlays-there is an overlaid image but there is also a helicopter depiction.And what of the Egyptian depiction of the two little men with large heads next to a vimana & symbols of electricity etc? Debunk that Mike if you can.Or ignore it like a debunker does

The blocks weighed on average 2.5 tons, but some weighed anywhere up to 16 tons. Most of these limestone blocks were transported from nearby quarries however, the heaviest stones found inside the pyramid were transported from Aswan which is 500 miles away. These 25 to 80 ton stones were made of granite and are found in the king’s chamber.

TAISUN, the biggest, strongest crane in the world sets a crane heavy lift world record by lifting the 17,100 metric ton topsides of the Saipem-owned “Frigstad D90” semi-submersible “Scarabeo 9”.

1157 US Tons. 384 tires, The most extremely heavy load ever transported in North America. 2,314,000 lbs

Yes,because while Taisun,the world’s strongest crane,can lift 20,000 tons.IT CANNOT MOVE.
A Sikorsky Super Stallion helicopter couldn’t move even a fraction of a Baalbek Trilithon sized stone (800-1200 tons).
And btw there’s no proof the Trilithon is a Roman retaining wall-the Romans merely built on top of the pre-existent platform.Clearly the old civilization that put that there utilised some other type of methods

This will be my last comment on this. Uh, yes we can move these today — we could move them using the same methods as ancient people. You simply have not read the material that I’ve posted here (not posts – but journal articles by specialists in ancient engineering who specifically describe how it can be done, cite examples of some of the elements from ancient texts, and use similar examples from the Renaissance and early modern period (i.e., before there were cranes) of how stones LARGER than those of Baalbek were moved by simple applied physics. You’re just parroting what ancient alien theorists and others love to say — but they haven’t done the research either. It’s sad.

Dear Mr.Heiser-Please specify even ONE method of moving a 1200 stone block half a mile,since the largest cranes cannot move & the largest helicopter cranes cannot lift that much.
I know of no such equipment ancient or modern.

Well that is interesting,using ice..but we’re talking about a 200 ton block that is claimed to have weighed 300..Certain of the Baalbek stones are upwards of 800 tons..I doubt this was the method used there..& it doesn’t meet my little challenge by any means

well like i said you can tell yourself that all you want. However, there is already flaws in your first article here. the panama canal did have more cubic feet of stone.Yet building a massive canal and building a gigantic pyramid is like saying i measured a million foot long road with a ruler ( or more accurately, like saying we will build a million mile long wall of stone made up of 60 MILLION CUBIC FEET OF STONE, hmm sounds like the great wall of china to me…) why? because it was not all compacted together like a pyramid is. it was much easier to build the canal because we werent building it to the height of the pyramids nor using the same sized stones.Dump trucks can carry millions of cubic feet worth of gravel over a period of time, but can it pick it all up at once? no. and comparing the technology even from the late 1800’s to the common metal work that ancients had was like comparing a stone axe to a surgical laser. sure, i would’nt believe the ancient astronaut theory either if the pyramids were made of individual hand sized bricks. because given enough time, a group of 12 year olds could do that. but nothing here can really explain the pyramids, not equations, none of this mainstream crap, just logic and common sense. allthough i respect your opinion, i expect the same without nonsensical ridicule. because the way to knowing if someone is truly ignorant is when they say they “know” we dont know anything. our opinions are just as relevant.

I’d like to note for readers that your comments *still* have not engaged any specific explanations put forth by the ancient engineering scholars in the material on this blog.

still not getting the point, i don’t need any engineer telling me whats true or not. unless you’ve been to the pyramids then don’t go by what others have told you. make up your own mind. There are plenty of credited engineers that will say the exact opposite. Reading your information will do nothing but waste my time with the same stuff they’ve been telling us for years. its nothing new…
btw, i don’t really think anyone else is reading this stuff either

Those comments disappear lol Mike deletes them

No let’s no be childish. I’m on the road and just got a chance to look at my blogs. I’m not living to read what you say on the comments. I don’t always get to things right away.

” when they say they “know” we dont know anything*
**When they say they “know”. Because we don’t really know anything**
(had to correct that sentence there)

Right. Engineers would be the last people to listen to. Especially people who specialize in ancient construction techniques, and do things like read ancient sources for how they did things.

yes, lol, espeicially when you say they “specialize in ancient construction techniques” when they of course, hehe……didnt build the pyramids. haha. tell me, what makes you a specialist in building things that non of us were around to witness or even really build? just because we have measurers a some fancy equations doesn’t mean that we have mastered all of physics and geometry. and once again, selective journalism at its finest. quote ” right, engineers would be the last people to listen to” my quote ” there are plenty of credited engineers who will say the exact opposite”

and “do things like read ancient sources for how they did things” yes, they also wrote about a gator-headed,upper body lion, lower bodyed hippo demon named “ammit” do you take that seriously? theres no telling what they really ment. regardless if its about gods or construction

comment that got deleted: ya, lol especially since they of course…well…didnt build the pyramids. hehe. tell me, what makes someone a true expert in building something that no one was around to witness, nor build themselves?

again selective journalism at its finest. your quote ” right, engineers would be the last people to listen to” my quote ” there are penty of credited engineers who would say the opposite”.

and: “do things like read ancient sources for how they did things” ya, they also wrote about a crocodile headed, lion-hippo bodyed demon named AMMIT. do you take that seriously? Who knows what they really ment. as far as im concerned, trusting anything written by them can’t be really used. regardless if it is about gods or construction. they had very altered ways of writing and meanings.
your links here can’t be considered valuable information due to the experts extreme bias nature.

This one just shows ignorance and immaturity. Do you really think I’d be hiding your comments like they had any substance? It’s time to grow up, or go back to watching You Tube.

Since you haven’t offered one point of data to refute any of the material in the articles I’ve posted, this will be your last comment (your attitude also has something to do with that, too). This blog isn’t about me wasting my time trying to convince you to read. It’s about “doing battle” with data. You haven’t brought any to the table.

Now, to answer your easy question:

Ancient people (like the Egyptians, Romans, Greeks, etc.) actually did leave texts behind on how they built thing, visualizations (i.e., drawings) on how they did what they did, tools (including drawings of how they were used). You can go to quarries and literally see the pounding stones used to pound out mega-ton obelisks. You can see pictures of them on barges (no UFOs). Real scholars *study* those things and test the techniques (we have these need things today like math and computer modeling to do that – and yeah, it works remember that the next to you drive over a bridge or visit a skyscraper). When it comes to Baalbek (bigger than any stones in Egypt), the author of the article you didn’t read on my site used as his models techniques from Roman works (the Romans have a lot to do with Baalbek) as well as engineering techniques used to move a block of granite (by hand – no aliens there that day) in the 18th century, before there were cranes – that stone was 1,250,000 kilograms – *heavier* than Baalbek (1.5 times the weight).

So yeah, there are people who actually look at the problem, do the math (literally), and figure out, via applied physics, how it could be done. And in the case of the 18th century stone, how it WAS done.

Real scholars don’t watch ancient aliens and set back amazed. They laugh. Like I am now.

well yes, lol especially when you say they “specialize in ancient construction techniques” when they of course hehe…didnt build the pyramids, tell me, what makes someone an expert in something they werent there to witness or even really build?again, just because we have tape measurers and fancy equations doesnt mean we have mastered all of physics and geometry.
and once again, selective journalism at its finest. quote from you “yes, engineers would be the last person to listen to” my quote “there are plenty of credited engineers that would say the opposite”. AND “do things like read ancient sources for how they did things” well, the egyptians also wrote about an alligator headed, upper body lion,lower body hippo demon named ammit. Do you take that seriously? Theres no telling what any of the stuff they wrote really ment. Wether its about gods or construction.
Everything you have on this website and all the links cannot be considered valuable sources of information because its biased beyond belief…

why does my comment keep deleting. what are you doing mike?

sorry I’ve been playing around with the Disqus plugin (with the settings). Try it again tonight or tomorrow.

You know the problem I have with claiming the Giza pyramids were a gradual production of Egyptian production alone is this:
1) We have tried for the last 2000 years now in various cultures & civilizations to reproduce the building of those pyramids & have failed… miserably!
2) Even if the Egyptians did build the pyramids where did they get the math, so much of the math they were using was way beyond the capabilities of their era & even many era & cultures after them didn’t duplicate it (but I’m not selling the Egyptian capabilities short), it’s just that if we can’t even reproduce it today with all the capabilities & advances we have how did they build Khufu’s pyramid at Giza in just 20 years. & each one of the Giza Pyramids was built in the life of one man but you’d think that ok the next pyramid after Khufu’s would have been bigger & better but then poof you get a the smallest one at giza. Somethings wrong with that picture… were the Egyptians trying to down size their architecture like we downsize
our computer technology? why the hell would they feel the need to do that?
3) How the hell did they move 2.3 million stone blocks each weighing 2.5 tonnes in just 20 yeas & then place them neatly in pyramid fashion building upwards & all the while build an interior labyrinth of corridors & rooms. You know if they were going downwards I could see them doing it all by themselves but that wasn’t the case. OH wait a minute they found a 4th pyramid by satellite recently with a very long ramp… the ramp starts downwards and ends at the bottom & is the longest ramp we’ve seen yet.
4) Then the three pyramids of Giza are a perfect reproduction of the 3 stars of Orion’s belt… wait a minute they
were aligned with a star constellation… WTF for? Orions belt is a pretty boring constellation to be so obsessed about even for an ancient don’t you think? So WTF was that all about?
5) The Temple of Karnak is beyond anything we’ve ever produced in the last 2600 years since Herodotus.
The great temple at the heart of Karnak is so big, St Peter’s, Milan and
Notre Dame Cathedrals could be lost within its walls. The Hypostyle
hall at 54,000 square feet with its 134 columns is still the largest
room of any religious building in the world. In addition to the main
sanctuary there are several smaller temples and a vast sacred lake.

How they hell did they do that? Ancient civilization, barely evolved to stage of the Greek & Persian civilizations.
They’re production make Greek & Persian productions look scanty & puny not even the Romans exemplify such magnificent architecture! How could they do this…mere barbarians compared to our era!
6) Modern engineers like to hypothesis & theorize how the Egyptians did with very little evidence of the positions
since we still don’t really know how they did it all by themselves with no guiding help from another extra source
of creativity. The Modern engineer has the bias of modern technology, yet modern technology has not
reproduced the smallest of the Giza pyramids or any production like it.
7) OK granted Alex Collier is quite a wack job, & thinks he talks to aliens (Schizophrenia implied) but Zacharia Sitchin was a notable expert in Sumerian cuniform with a degree in economics & he rendered evidence & examples that to date show that extra-terrestrial phenomenon in Babylonian/Sumerian civilizations is implied. If so, how come skeptics so easily dismiss that the Great Pyramids don’t imply some extra-terrestrial involvement in our past.
8) We’ve yet to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that a random Darwinian solution is the origin of our species.
Modern day interpretation of humanities origins seem accurate on the surface of things but when we dig deeper into our origins we find tremendous complexities that get us into endless arguments to the point that i can no longer accept the tradtional gradual evolution theory is the only plausible explanation out there. I agree gradual evolution occurs but I do not agree that gradual evolution is the only explanation for the production of man & nature.
9) There are other theories other than the standard tripe, they should be explored but every time someone from
outside authoritative positions explores them, (usually because the public gets little & next to 0 closure on the
research controlled & conducted usually by the political correct), these people get black listed or shunned by
government detractors.
10) if the Alien theorist are so wrong why do so many detractors come out and vehemently attack them.
If they’re so wrong people will notice & say hey look at these bafoons. But in reality so many people are
fascinated by the alien archeology theorists that I can’t believe that these detractors are correct.
11) An ancient Peruvian civilization out of Cusco & Machu Picchu had a unique series of artifacts we’ve
discovered. They depicted ancient wonders that defy our sense of reasoning today that we had no interaction
with Gods or extra-terrestrials & did not have exposure to the dinosaurs but the Ica stones say different & they
even indicate we had technology in the past even more advanced than what we have today.
It actually led to the Jurassic Park theory that we could bio-engineer dinosaurs and while it was hailed as
science fiction back in the 90’s, today it’s theoretical possible given our advances in bio-engineering.
12) What science knows today is only a fraction of what humanity has known in the past & what we will
know over the next thousand years. Machiu Kaku theoretical physicist believes aliens exist & we may one
day be faced with an invasion of aliens. His remark from an interview in support of SETI, “We could be in the
middle of an intergalactic conversation…and we wouldn’t even know.” shows he thinks it will take us by
surprise one day. SETI – search for extraterrestrial intelligence… This is the same same as the
Egyptian God SET minus the I (as in eye of Ra), now I don’t think that that is a coincidence either.
Do you? If so, did you actually study this shit… i did & well OK i’m not totally credulous but I’m
not totally skeptical either…

There is just too many fraking grey area’s to say either way in these maters.

Nobody has any reason to reproduce the pyramids — and frankly, who tried? I don’t know any instances where other ancient cultures said, “we need to do one of those, too.” They built other amazing things, like the lighthouse at Alexandria. It’s a false “litmus test.”

Their math wasn’t beyond the task at all. You don’t need calculus to build a pyramid. A base-ten system and fractions (and geometric principles – like the 3-4-5 principle Wallignton shows in his video – to produce the angle of the great pyramid – is just fine).

On the “how?” watch Wallington’s video and then watch Houdin’s video. This has quite workable solutions using simple principles of counterweight and leverage. It’s frankly brilliant.

The Orion correlation is also simply achieved. (It’s also not “perfect” but that’s beside the point). You could do this today with a straight line object – align it visually, measure the angle of the offset, apply the results to a small scale grid on the ground, then plot the larger grid.

Basically everything you have in this comment is answered in the materials on this site, so I’m not going to go through this whole thing. None of it is unknown to folks who specialize in Egyptian engineering and quarrying methods. It’s all ground that’s been covered. While ancient astronaut theorists and Internet writers are breathlessly saying it’s all a mystery, real scholars have produced answers that are repeatable, scaleable, and reflected by the archaeological record.

Sure it was people. But we couldn’t build a better pyramid faster today and that is a fact. I work in the iron industry and I see crazy things built that you’d never believe, even have a hand in them. Your article offers little to no proof of anything either, and you are calling your commenters ignorant for calling you out. We don’t have the technology to lift these stones without abrasion marks, perfectly into place, to create the hydraulic pump system that is the pyramid of Giza. Of course it was people who built the pyramid. But they were smarter than you and I. Have you ever heard of Acoustic Resonance Levitation? With nobody truly mastering the technique in modern society, the pyramid could never be built, and to say we could do better is surely an ignorant thing to say. Society is deteriorating, to the point where people don’t even offer explanations in their arguments. “We built the panama canal therefore we can build the pyramid too :D!” If there was a simpleton explanation like that for everything, I’m sure it would say alot about humanity as a whole, but instead, it just says alot about you. You must remember people are not becoming more, intelligent with time. We have been a straight downward path for the last 250 years due to the powers that be, and you are foolish if you think you are exempt. The information achieved by carbon dating shows the stones were moved in a timely manner. I do truly believe with effort the great pyramid of Giza could have been built by people WITHOUT doubt. But the elaborate complexities inside the pyramid would be nowhere near the level of perfection. These pyramids, unlike Rome, WERE built in a day (or 7). But I don’t see you using that data. See, each molecule has a magnetic value. Acoustic resonance uses this to lift objects and basically “take their weight away”, so you can basically slide it into place. I have no doubt they used barges to transport quarried stones, but humans didn’t lift them into place with brute strength, or there would be alot more imperfection than what you see. Also stop talking to people like they are stupid, or saying every argument has to do with aliens. I don’t say shit here about aliens, so don’t even use the alien mockery trick in your reply. The problem with people, is that they are willing to sell themselves short as soon as they can’t figure it out, it must have involved foreign help. Which by the way, is retarded, people are intelligent beings. We used to be the most intelligent thing on Earth. The most powerful, of course we built these ourselves, but we had smarter people than engineers doing math. I strongly doubt you could throw a pyramid of Giza up in a week and have a better result, because the devolution of society is willing to bet you’re wrong.

I agree that we could build a pyramid today if we wanted to. One important point that you seem to have missed is the very size and the location of the Great Pyramid suggests that the ancients’ veneration for the universe produced advanced mathematicians and engineers whose knowledge was eventually obliterated. There might come a day when people will not know just how the Panama Canal was built.

In 1999 experts were so convinced that not only could they build a Pyramid using modern tools, but build it better than the Egyptians did, that they decided to let themselves be filmed while they did so. It was broadcast. They failed. Completely. Utterly. Without exception.

I know all about this and watched it years ago. Problem with this excuse: they didn’t use the sort of techniques the Egyptians would have used (or that Houdin illustrates more currently, or that Wally Wallington demonstrates). In other words, these “experts” showed a profound ignorance of ancient construction techniques.

Ancient Egypt: Did aliens build the pyramids? Archeologist addresses SHOCK UFO claims

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Pyramids are 'calling cards left by aliens' claims theorist

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The three Great Pyramids of Giza have towered over the capital of Egypt for at least 4,500 years but their origin is shrouded in mystery. There are no detailed records of their construction and the sophisticated methods involved in their design appear to be centuries ahead of time. Archaeologists have spent years trying to decode the mysteries of the ancient Pharaohs' burial places but are yet to even scratch the surface of the pyramids' history. The pyramids' enigmatic past has invited over the course of the 20th and 21st century a myriad of conspiracy theories concerning their construction.

Related articles

The most prominent conspiracy theory states the Great Pyramids were built with the aid of extraterrestrial technology.

Other conspiracists believed alien UFOs imparted construction knowledge on ancient Egypt in order to raise the monstrous structures.

The tallest of the three pyramids, the Great Pyramid of Khufu, looms over the city below it at a height 455ft (138.8m).

The pyramid is estimated to be built from around 2,300,000 meticulously chiselled stone blocks, some of which weigh in at more than 50 tonnes.

Ancient Egypt: Where the Great Pyramids of Giza built by aliens? (Image: GETTY)

In 2001, Dr Viktor Ivanovich, a former scientist for Russia&rsquos Kremlin, spectacularly claimed the KGB found ancient alien remains inside of the Great Pyramid.

Speaking candidly in a bizarre documentary on the subject of the pyramids&rsquo supposed alien origins, the scientist argued the knowledge was stored in KGB archives as early as 1961.

He said: "The presence of this creature and the design of the pyramids, and the whole pool of historical and scientific evidence shows that this particular visitation took place about 11,000 years BC.&rdquo

And on the History Channel series Ancient Aliens, conspiracy theorists went one step further by claiming alien visitors built pyramids on Antarctica.

Conspiracy theory author David Childress said: &ldquoIf this gigantic pyramid in Antarctica is an artificial structure, it would probably be the oldest pyramid on the planet and in fact it might be the master pyramid that all the other pyramids on planet Earth were designed to look like.&rdquo

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Another conspiracist also said on the show: &ldquoAll the way around the world we find evidence of pyramid structures.

&ldquoWe should start looking at the possibility there was habitation on Antarctica.

&ldquoWas it a lost civilisation? Could it be ancient astronauts?&rdquo

However, claims of any links between the pyramids and supposed alien astronauts have been widely debunked by experts in the field of archaeology.

UFO claims: Some conspiracists believe ancient aliens shaped early civilisations (Image: GETTY)

Assistant Professor Matthew Peeples, the co-founder of the School of Human Revolution at Arizona State University, refuted all paranormal conspiracies concerning the pyramids.

The building technology is impressive, but we don&rsquot need to invoke aliens to explain it

Matthew Peeples, Arizona State University

The expert said the idea intelligent extraterrestrial helped shape ancient civilisations here on Earth is the single most outrageous archaeological narrative in popular culture.

He said: &ldquoThese ideas are not supported by scientific evidence, but they&rsquove become so prevalent that many people believe there must be something to them.

&ldquoTo use the Great Pyramids in Egypt as an example, archaeologists have clearly shown how these structures fit in a broader tradition of smaller stone structures and earlier attempts at pyramid construction.

20 years = 7,300 days = 175,200 hours

That is 13 blocks quarried, transported, shaped and fitted into their final positions in the pyramid EVERY HOUR, day & night, non-stop for 20 years…! Somebody has got to be lying, and I think it is Mr Herodotus, but again I must ask why do Egyptologists still adhere to this flawed time span for the construction of the Great Pyramid when plain logic argues against it?

“It is thought that the Great Pyramid was originally 280 Egyptian cubits tall, 146.5 metres (480.6 ft), but with erosion and absence of its pyramidion, its present height is 138.8 metres (455.4 ft). Each base side was 440 cubits, 230.4 metres (755.9 ft) long…

…The mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is roughly 2.5million cubic metres (88million cu ft)…

…Based on these estimates, building the Great pyramid over a period of 20 years would involve:

installing approx 800 tonnes of stone every day…”

I will leave you with the quote below taken from the sacredsites website

Did a celestial being build the Great Pyramid?

The Great Pyramid is the only one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” that still stands. Shocking discoveries about the engineering and construction of the Great Pyramid are raising questions:

The Great Pyramid (22nd century BC) was built on a 13-acre base made level to within less than 1″. 900 million cubic feet of granite blocks (10-20 tons each) were used in its construction. The space between the stones is smaller than a human hair, exact to the thousandth of an inch. Today’s technology can’t achieve that. It can only move stones (10-20 tons each) to within 1 or 2 inches of each other.

The Great Pyramid has 4 stone foundations that fit into sockets cut into the bedrock. These stones are designed to compensate for changes in temperature. The sides are concave at their lower end. Their curvature conforms to the curvature of the earth’s top layer. So, if you could draw a circle extended from any two adjacent corners, it would equal the circumference of Earth at the Equator.

This pyramid was built exactly in the center of Earth’s land mass. Equal amounts of land are contained in each of the 4 corners. The pyramid faces due North more accurately than we can position buildings. Its shadow has predicted equinoxes and solstices.

A single entrance on the North side opens into a passageway that had several chambers with air vents. On a specific day in history, the angle of this passageway (looking up) pointed directly at the North Star. If you could have drawn a line straight up from the pyramid into the sky, on that day, you would have intersected the exact center of our galaxy. That day was the vernal equinox in 2141 BC. Such an alignment happens only once every 26,000 years.

The Great Pyramid originally had a face of polished white lime stones lined within .01 inch from each other. These lime stones reflected the sun light and looked majestic from space.

The Sacred cubit was the unit of measurement used in building the Great Pyramid. These units of measurement were carved into the wall and can serve to decode the pyramid’s dimensions. For example, multiplying the sacred cubit times 10 million equals the polar radius of earth. And multiplying the total weight of the Pyramid by 1000 trillion equals the weight of planet Earth.

Bible facts:

“In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the heart of Egypt, and a monument to the LORD at its border. It will be a sign and witness to the LORD Almighty in the land of Egypt. When they cry out to the LORD because of their oppressors, he will send them a savior and defender, and he will rescue them” Isaiah 19:19-20.

In Hebrew, each letter has a numerical value. The Pyramid’s height (in inches) equals the sum of all the letters in the Hebrew text of Isaiah 19:19-20 which is 5449.

The Great Pyramid has been called “the Bible in stone” because its passage systems reveal geometrically, in line and symbol, the plan of salvation as revealed in the Bible.

The Great Pyramid contains one piece of furniture – a box the same size as the Ark of the Covenant. This box existed over 1000 years before God gave Moses the Ark’s dimensions. It is located in the King’s Chamber – a room with the same cubic volume as the bronze laver in Solomon’s Temple.

Originally, the Great Pyramid was to have a solid gold capstone that was a scale model of the pyramid but it was never put in place because the builders reject it. Only on a pyramid can a capstone also be the head of the corner (Psalm 118:22 and Matt.21:42).

The architect of the pyramid designed the lengths of the various passageways to serve as time lines to predict significant future events.

The first ascending passage commences at a point which, on the time scale of the Passage System, represents the year 1486 B.C. This was the year of Israel’s exodus from Egypt.

The distance from the starting marker to the passageway up to the King’s Chamber that intersects the down passageway foretells the date when the Law was given at Mt. Sinai. Reaching the King’s chamber there is a short passageway that leads off to another room called the Queen’s chamber. The distance to that passageway converts to the year Jesus was crucified.

Measuring up the ascending passage to the year 33 AD, one finds the start of the Grand Gallery, and the exact date of April 3, 33 A.D. Here is found “the Christ Triangle.” Incorporating the angle of the passages, we find September 29, 2 BC as Christ’s birth. And the third leg of the triangle points to the date October 14, 29 AD as the date for Christ’s baptism.

The main passageway descends at an angle of 26 degrees 18 minutes and 9 seconds. This is called the “Christ angle” because a line drawn from the Pyramid to Bethlehem is 26 degrees 18 minutes and 9 seconds from true north.

Pyramid explorers see many other significant dates in Christianity foretold in the lengths of the various passageways and chambers.

The Great Pyramid is different from all the other pyramids in Egypt in that it’s not solid. There are series of passageways and several chambers inside it with air shafts that keep the temperature inside at exactly 68 degrees, the same as the mean temperature of Earth which makes it unfit for preserving the dead. All the other pyramids are grossly inferior copies, and unlike the Great Pyramid were used as tombs. The Great Pyramid never served as a tomb.

The architect of the Great Pyramid knew all the dimensions of Earth, its weight and curvature, the irregularity of that curvature at the poles, the location and size of every land mass, its height above sea level, Earth’s mean temperature, the exact direction of true north and the location of the stars in our galaxy…

“The Great, the Mighty God …hast set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day.” Jeremiah 32:18-20

The symbolism encoded in the Great Pyramid can’t be a coincident. Its supernatural design and architecture make it a unique witness to the Glory of God. The existence of the Great Pyramid implies the existence of its architect – God.