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The Battle of Stiklestad

The Battle of Stiklestad


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The Battle of Stiklestad - History

On 29 July 1030, King Olaf Haraldsson [Olaf II] was defeated and slain at the Battle of Stiklestad.

King Olaf had been briefly exiled to Novgorod [in modern day Russia] by the Danes and returned in 1030 to reclaim his throne. Thus, the Battle of Stiklestad between King Olaf against a large army of Norwegian farmers involved both politics and religion as Olaf desired to unite Norway under his rule and to Christianize his subjects. Indeed the battle cry of Olaf’s army was reportedly, Fram! Fram! Kristmenn, Krossmenn, kongsmenn or “Forward, forward, Christ’s men, Cross men, king’s men!”

After Olaf’s death, his body was buried in secret and moved to St. Klement’s Church in Trondheim one year later. When his body was unburied, it was discovered to be incorrupt. This was perceived even by Olaf’s enemies as a miracle and contributed both to Olaf’s reputation for holiness and to the further Christianization of the Norwegians.

Olaf would eventually become the patron saint of Norway, the Rex Perpertuus Norvegiae, and on the site of his death was constructed a church. The Nidaros Cathedral was constructed on the site of his burial and is now the location of his body.

The Battle of Stiklestad is seen by historians as marking the end of the Viking period and the beginning of the medieval period of Norway. Each year the pageant Spelet om Helag Olav is performed during the week leading up to St Olaf’s day on July 29. This pageant attracts about 20,000 visitors.

Wikipedia article on St. Olaf – also contains the propers for the Mass of the Feast of St. Olaf


Harald Hardrada – A Great Viking Warrior Is Born

The most comprehensive accounts of King Harald Hardrada’s life can be found in the thirteenth-century collections of sagas of the Norwegian kings, of which the most respected is the one known as Heimskringla and reliably attributed to the Icelandic historian, poet, and politician Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 1241).

German churchman, Adam of Bremen also documented some of King Hardrada’s expeditions, but the cleric’s writings are hostile in nature and far from objective. He does, however, confirm the great Viking’s military skills and warlike reputation when he refers to Hardrada as the ‘thunderbolt of the north’ .

Born as Harald Sigurdsson in Ringerike, Norway in 1015, he was the child of Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and her second husband Sigurd Syr, a king of Ringerike and one of the wealthiest chieftains of Upplands, the lands and forest regions to the north of Oslo in Norway. After his death, he was given the title “Hardrada” which means “hard ruler”.

The Carruthers are linked to this family genealogically. The biggest problem with genealogy is the correct dates this far back.

From her first marriage, Åsta Gudbrandsdatter was also the mother of King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway, who was later to become St. Olaf.

Hardrada admired his half-brother, King Olaf, very much and it could not have been easy, to see him die in a battle. This particular event was of great significance to Hardrada’s personal destiny and changed his life. Hardrada was loyal to his half-brother until the end.


Viking history at Stiklestad

Stiklestad has a central role in Norway’s history as the place where King Olav II was killed in the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030 as part of the Christianization of Norway. This history is conveyed at Stiklestad every day through exhibitions and events.

Stiklestad summer

At the Medieval farm Stiklastadir, you can step back 1000 years in time with indoor and outdoor activities together with our talented guides. Activities at Stiklestad include:

  • Storytelling session
  • Greet the animals
  • Walk on stilts
  • Archery
  • Pitch and toss
  • Play in the barn
  • Theatrical performances

Farm to farm

Join the maid Dorthea on a fun-filled walk from farm to farm set a century ago! There are daily walking tours all summer.

The St. Olav Festival

It’s full of life during the annual St. Olav Festival at Stiklestad with the Drama of St. Olav (in Norwegian language only), concerts, theatrical performances, lectures, guided tours, excursions and activities for the whole family. You can also visit the Medieval Market where you can experience medieval music, entertainment and theatre. Craftsmen from around the country fitted out in appropriate period dress demonstrate their skills. There are daily activities for young and old alike.

The Battle of Stiklestad

The Battle of Stiklestad in 1030 is regarded as the event that has most shaped Norway. At Stiklestad the country’s most defining historic event is conveyed and experienced every day.

The Battle of Stiklestad in 1030 is the most famous battle in Norway’s history. This is where the Christian Viking king Olav Haraldsson fell in the fight against local chieftains and was later declared Saint Olav. The Battle of Stiklestad is considered as the most important event in connection with the consolidation of the kingdoms and Christianity’s definitive breakthrough in Norway.

About the Stiklestad National Culture Centre

The Stiklestad National Cultural Centre has a special responsibility for the dissemination of knowledge about Olav Haraldson, the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030 and societal development that may be linked to Stiklestad and St. Olav.

Stiklestad also features a cultural centre with exhibitions, a museum shop, restaurant /café and meeting/conference facilities, which is open year-round. Stiklestad Hotel is situated in the same building. In the local area you can stroll and visit Stiklestad Church, which dates from 1180, the amphitheatre, the Catholic chapel and open-air museum with 30 historic buildings from 17 th to 19 th centuries.


After the battle

Almost immediately after his death rumours started to circulate about miracles that had happened surrounding Olav. His body was moved to current day Trondheim – called Nidaros at the time – and his coffin was buried in the sandy bank of the Nidelven river. Stories started to abound, such as blind people regaining their eyesight when walking along the Nidelven river. On August 3, 1031, i.e. a year after Olav’s death, Bishop Grimkjell came to Nidaros. Olav’s coffin was exhumed. A scent of roses arose from the coffin, Olav’s ginger beard had grown, and his cheeks were flushed red. The bishop then realised that Olav Haraldsson was no simple Viking king, and Olav Haraldsson then became Olav the Holy. His coffin was moved to the small Klemens church of Nidaros and construction of the fantastic Nidaros cathedral began.

Christian pilgrims from all over the world started to make the journey to Nidaros Cathedral and up until the 17th century Nidaros was one of Northern Europe’s most important pilgrim sites. In 1544, King Gustav Vasa’s Lutheran regime prohibited pilgrimages in Sweden. Thus the pilgrim trail was forgotten, the local story of Olav lived on and since the 1980s there has been a rising interest in pilgrimages in Europe. In September 2013, the St. Olavsleden pilgrim trail was re-opened, and once again hundreds of hikers from all over the world can walk in the footsteps of St. Olav, trough historical landscape towards Nidaros Cathedral.


Stiklestad

Stiklestad is a village and parish in the municipality of Verdal in Trondelag county, Norway. It is located 4 kilometres east of the town of Verdalsora and about 2 kilometres southeast of the village of Forbregd/Lein. The village is mainly known as the site of the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Stiklestad Church is located in the village and it is assumed to have been erected on the exact spot where King Olaf II Haraldsson fell in the battle. The king was buried in Nidaros, canonised there on 3 August 1031, and later enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral. Following the Lutheran reformation of 1537 the saints remains were removed and their precise resting-place has been unknown since 1568.

1. Name. (Название)
The old Norse form of the name Stiklarstadir. The first element is the genitive of the word stikl and the last element stadir, which means "farm". The word stikl could be formed from the verb stikla municipality which means "to jump", and it may have been the name of a nearby stream.
In the 13th century Gesta history of Denmark, or of "history of the Danes" by Saxo grammaticus recorded that the town was named in honor stikla municipality, a warrior who was most famous for raiding the Viking captain of the channel was known as "the red virgin" for her brutal attacks on Irish ships. Stikla municipality would have settled in the area at some point after participating in the battle of Clontarf in 1014.

2. Recent history. (Новейшая история)
Given the role of king Olaf II in the spread of Christianity in Norway, of Stiklestad was an important place in the Norwegian national culture, from the 1030 battle. Whether Olav memorial from the middle Ages.
Between 1934 and 1944, Vidkun Quisling nationalist party Nasjonal Samling held a series of rallies in Stiklestad, in an attempt to link the party in the historical past of Norway. A special monument of Samling Nasjonal opened in July 1944, before being demolished a year after the fall of the government of quislings.
Since 1954, the annual Saint Olav drama, staged in the days preceding the battle of 1030, was held in the specially built amphitheatre in Stiklestad.
In 1995, a parliamentary decree created Stiklestad and the national cultural centre Stiklestad at Stiklestad Nasjonale Kultursenter, to promote the history and heritage of St. Olav, including the annual drama of St. Olav. There is also a folk Museum which includes a medieval farm, and is located in the same building, the cultural center.

  • The Battle of Stiklestad Norwegian: Slaget ved Stiklestad Old Norse: Stiklarstadir in 1030 is one of the most famous battles in the history of Norway
  • Stiklestad Church Norwegian: Stiklestad kirke is a parish church of the Church of Norway in Verdal municipality in Trondelag county, Norway. It is located
  • Knut Stiklestad born 22 September 1948 is a Norwegian opera singer bass He has performed at the Norwegian National Opera and Ballet for many years
  • The Stiklestad United Lutheran Church is a historic church in Brandrup Township, Minnesota, United States, completed in 1898. It was listed on the National
  • Some villages in the municipality include Forbregd Lein, Lysthaugen, Stiklestad Trones, Vera, Vinne, and Vuku. The 1, 548 - square - kilometre 598 sq mi
  • parishes in the deanery. The deanery is headquartered at Stiklestad Church in the village of Stiklestad in Verdal Municipality. The deanery was established
  • performance played every end of July in Stiklestad in Verdal, Norway. The play commemorates the Battle of Stiklestad that took place in the year 1030, and
  • an annex church for the Stiklestad parish which is based at the nearby Stiklestad Church. The parish is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the
  • King Olaf at the Battle of Stiklestad east of Nidaros Trondheim Norway, in 1030. King Olaf s martyrdom at Stiklestad appears to have contributed
  • Orthodox Church situated at Stiklestad in Verdal, Norway. It is situated at the historical memorial complex of Stiklestad and inaugurated in honor of
  • More og Romsdal, Norway. He played an important role in the Battle of Stiklestad His actions probably saved the life of Thorir Hund during the battle
  • 9 - meter - tall obelisk made from quartzite shale from Vågå. It was erected at Stiklestad in Nord - Trondelag county in July 1944 and inaugurated by collaborationist
  • a Norwegian chieftain from Oppland who participated in the Battle of Stiklestad during 1030 which resulted in the death of King Olaf II of Norway According
  • Follafoss. It is the main church for the Verran parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The brown, wooden church was
  • Levanger. It is an annex church for the Levanger parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The church was built in 1998
  • Beitstad. It is the main church for the Beitstad parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • one of the churches for the Vera og Vuku parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • village of Ekne. It is the church for the Ekne parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Markabygda. It is the church for the Markabygd parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Mosvik. It is the main church for the Mosvik parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • of Vinne. It is the church for the Vinne parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Hokstad. It is the church for the Ytteroy parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Statland. It is the church for the Statland parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Malm. It is the main church for the Malm parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Bartnes. It is an annex chapel for the Beitstad parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white and red, brick church
  • Okkenhaug. It is the church for the Okkenhaug parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • Sela. It is an annex church for the Malm parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, wooden church was
  • is the former main church for the Inderoy parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The stone church was built
  • bought property at Stiklestad in the hopes of building a chapel there to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Olav at the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. Though
  • one of the churches for the Vera og Vuku parish which is part of the Stiklestad prosti deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The red, wooden church was

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Legacy

In 1901, poet Per Sivle wrote a poem Tord Foleson, about King Olaf's standard-bearer at the battle. Foleson was able to plant the banner before he died, and it remained standing throughout the battle, even after the king fell. It was kept erect and replaced by the local populace for centuries, and a memorial stands at the site today. The most famous line of the poem, Merket det stend, um mannen han stupa ('The symbol stands, even when the man falls'), is inscribed on the memorial in Stalheim, Norway. It is also on the inscription wall in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp memorial site. [5]

The Saint Olav Drama (Norwegian: Spelet om Heilag Olav ) is an outdoor theatre performance played every end of July in Stiklestad. In July 1954, the owner of the farm at Stiklestad gave permission for the performance of a play based on the battle on his property. The play was written by Olav Gullvåg and has been staged every year since 1954. Annually, people travel to Stiklestad to watch The Saint Olaf Drama at what is now the largest outdoor theatre in Scandinavia. [6]


Olav becomes St. Olav

After Olav’s death special occurrences, that were seen as miracles, took place in Nidaros (Trondheim’s medieval name). There was a solar eclipse during a battle in Stiklestad, and it was interpreted as a sign of God’s rage. Rumours of healed wounds and miraculous healings spread and were associated with Olav’s death.

Olav became a sacred man. Even his prior enemies acknowledged him as a saint in 1031. Thereafter, pilgrims began been flowing into Nidaros. Up until the 17th century Nidaros was one of Northern Europe’s most important pilgrim sites. After the Lutheran Reformation pilgrimages were ended in the Nordic Countries.

St. Olav or Olav the Holy was one of the most important medieval Nordic saints, and the Olav cult was something that the Nordic countries had in common during the Middle Ages. In Sweden, there is an exceptionally high number of churches dedicated to Olav, but there are several St. Olav’s Churches in Finland and Åland as well, including ones in Nagu, Jomala and Njutånger. You can visit St. Olav’s church on your way from Turku to Hudiksvall.


The Battle of Stiklestad - History

arold (or Harald) Hardrada (or Hardraada), also known as Harald Sigurdsson, became King of Norway in 1047 when Magnus of Norway died and remained King until his death at Stamford Bridge in 1066. Harald fought along side his half-brother King Olaf Haraldson of Norway at the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. In the battle King Olaf was killed but Harald escaped into exile.During his time away from Norway Harald became a mercenary for the Byzantine empire and saw action across Europe. In 1045 after becoming very wealthy and with a small army he returned to Norway to claim the throne. Norway had been ruled by Harald's nephew Magnus since 1035 and the two came to an agreement to rule the country together. This only lasted a couple of years as Magnus died in 1047 and Harald became the sole King of Norway. From 1047 until 1064 much of his time was occupied with his claim to the Danish throne and conflicts against King Sweyn of Denmark. In 1064 a peace agreement was reached that allowed Harold to turn his attention to England.

Some twenty years earlier an agreement had been made between Magnus, the King of Norway and Harthacnut, the King of Denmark stipulating that if either died without an heir his kingdom must pass to the other. Hathacnut, as son of Canute, was not only King of Denmark but had a claim to the English throne. When Harthacnut died in 1042 Magnus claimed the thrones of Denmark and England. Harold believed that this agreement gave him a claim to the English throne and so he invaded Britain in September of 1066. His forces had been added to by Tostig the exiled Earl of Northumbria. They sailed into the Humber and attacked Yorkshire. At the battle of Gate Fulford Harold and Tostig defeated Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar (Tostig's brother and now Earl of Northumbria). A few days later at the battle of Stamford Bridge King Harold of England defeated Harold Hardrada and Tostig who were both killed.


Christian History

July 29, 1030: Viking king Olaf Haraldsson, patron saint of Norway, dies in the battle of Stiklestad. Though limited in his ability to force his countrymen to convert during his reign, his death was later hailed as a miracle-filled martyrdom and, as his legend grew, it spurred on christiansd converting the country. In time, Olaf became one of the most well-known saints of medieval Christendom, and his relics in Norway became one of Europe's most popular pilgrimage destinations (see issue 63: Conversion of the Vikings).

July 29, 1775: The U.S. Army founds its chaplaincy, making it the Army's oldest division after the infantry.

July 29, 1794: In a converted blacksmith's shop in Philadelphia, former slave Richard Allen assembles a group of black Christians who had faced discrimination in the local Methodist Episcopal Church. They formed the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, the mother church of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, now known throughout the world (see issue 62: Bound for Canaan).

July 29, 1833: English abolitionist William Wilberforce dies a mere three days after England abolishes slavery (see issue 53: William Wilberforce).

July 29, 1968: Pope Paul VI publishes his encyclical "Humanae Vitae," which condemns artificial birth control methods.


Watch the video: The Battle of Stiklestad (May 2022).