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Charles Mangin

Charles Mangin


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Charles Mangin was born in 1866. During the early stages of the First World War he emerged as the most aggressive French general on the Western Front. His belief in offensive tactics resulted in his being given the nickname the Butcher. At Verdun in 1916 he took part in several successful counter-attacks and rose from a divisional command to the leader of the French Third Army.

Mangin was one of the few senior officers who fully supported the Nivelle Offensive in 1917. Mangin led the disastrous attack at the Battle of the Aisne. This resulted in his losing his command but he was recalled as head of the French Tenth Army in the summer of 1918. With the Germans in retreat, conditions were now more appropriate for Mangin's aggressive tactics. Margin led the Tenth Army in the successful 2nd Battle of the Marne.

Charles Mangin died in 1923.


Henri Manguin

Henri Charles Manguin (French: [mɑ̃gɛ̃] 23 March 1874 – 25 September 1949) [1] was a French painter, associated with the Fauves.

Manguin entered the École des Beaux-Arts to study [1] under Gustave Moreau, as did Henri Matisse and Charles Camoin with whom he became close friends. Like them, Manguin made copies of Renaissance art in the Louvre.

Manguin was greatly influenced by Impressionism, as is seen in his use of bright pastel hues.

He married in 1899 and made numerous portraits of his wife, Jeanne, and their family. In 1902, Manguin had his first exhibition at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d'Automne. Many of his paintings were of Mediterranean landscapes and would soon represent the height of his career as a Fauve artist.


Hitler takes a tour of Paris

On June 23, 1940, Adolf Hitler surveys notable sites in the French capital, now German-occupied territory.

In his first and only visit to Paris, Hitler made Napoleon’s tomb among the sites to see. “That was the greatest and finest moment of my life,” he said upon leaving. Comparisons between the Fuhrer and Napoleon have been made many times: They were both foreigners to the countries they ruled (Napoleon was Italian, Hitler was Austrian) both planned invasions of Russia while preparing invasions of England both captured the Russian city of Vilna on June 24 both had photographic memories both were under 5 feet 9 inches tall, among other coincidences.

As a tribute to the French emperor, Hitler ordered that the remains of Napoleon’s son be moved from Vienna to lie beside his father.

But Hitler being Hitler, he came to do more than gawk at the tourist attractions. He ordered the destruction of two World War I monuments: one to General Charles Mangin, a French war hero, and one to Edith Cavell, a British nurse who was executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape German-occupied Brussels. The last thing Hitler wanted were such visible reminders of past German defeat.

Hitler would gush about Paris for months afterward. He was so impressed, he ordered architect and friend Albert Speer to revive plans for a massive construction program of new public buildings in Berlin, an attempt to destroy Paris, not with bombs, but with superior architecture. “Wasn’t Paris beautiful?” Hitler asked Speer. 𠇋ut Berlin must be far more beautiful. [W]hen we are finished in Berlin, Paris will only be a shadow.”


Nicknamed "The Butcher" and "The Man Eater", Mangin made himself infamous as a brutal general because of his poorly planned attacks, where his colonial soldiers took the brunt of the casualties, as he believed that they felt less pain than the whites.

After the war, Mangin's army was sent to occupy the Rhineland where he, with support of the French Government, helped in the creation of the Rhenish Republic. In the Rhenish Republic, Mangin was given the title of Governor General, which gave him the full authority over the Rhenish and the French troops in the Republic, his job being to defend it from foreign invasions and internal unrest. After an attempt to poison him in 1925 failed, he has been strengthening his control of the country, and beginning to move it closer to becoming a part of France. His health is dwindling, however, and is not expected to live much longer. His death would lead to a power vacuum, and the young Rhenish Republic having to stand on its own legs.


General Charles Mangin (1866-1925) French army officer who had command in the First World War. At the end of thear he was appointed to the Supreme War Council. Mangin in 1918.

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David Olusoga: ‘Black soldiers were expendable – then forgettable’

A lthough the guns on the western front fell silent, literally with military precision, at the striking of the 11th hour on 11 November 1918, the end of war did not mark the coming of peace. The convulsions and instability that had been let loose upon the world continued to play out in ways that no armistice could prevent, and to ends that often suited the interests of the victors.

A century after the end of the first world war, few of those convulsions are well remembered in Britain. The centenary of the Russian revolution came and went without much fanfare, as will the anniversary of the German revolution. One of the many effects and after-effects of the first world war that have been forgotten is the way in which the war challenged the racial hierarchies of the early 20th century and how, in 1919 and the early 1920s, those hierarchies were violently reasserted. This is part of a wider amnesia.

In most of the nations who engaged in the conflict, the role played by the four million non-white non-Europeans who fought and laboured on the western front – and in other theatres of the war in Africa, the Middle East and Asia – has been airbrushed from popular memory.

This was the first truly global war. Mechanised industrial weapons, such as the machine gun, combined with modern railways to become the enabling factors that led to a war of siege and slaughter on a continental scale. In seeking to break the deadlock of the trenches, all the main combatant nations, in their different ways, attempted to globalise the war.

The British deployed the men of their Indian army on the European battlefield from October 1914 the decision being made within days of the outbreak of hostilities. They later called upon men from Africa and the West Indies and fielded armies of labourers from across the empire and from technically neutral China. The French filled their trenches with troops from their own colonies the famous Senegalese Tirailleurs (infantry) from French West Africa, Spahi cavalrymen from North Africa and units from Vietnam and Madagascar.

Even Germany, although stripped of its colonies by 1915 and largely driven from the world’s oceans by the might of the Royal Navy, attempted to weaponise religion in order to fight a global conflict. Making common cause with the Ottoman Empire, Germany encouraged the Sultan to declare not just war but holy jihad against Britain, France and Russia. With varying degrees of success, this edict was then used by German agents to induce the leaders of other Muslim peoples, in Libya, Afghanistan and Sudan, to take up arms against the British and French.

A wounded black US soldier attends a victory parade in New York in 1919. Photograph: Bettmann Archive

In the first weeks of the war the string of German victories in Belgium and on the French frontiers had encouraged the German state and the press to dismiss the presence of colonial troops as evidence of the British and French armies’ lack of fighting men and as an exotic portent of impending German victory. When the victories stopped and the western front solidified in the last months of 1914, the German response changed radically. In 1915 the German government issued a formal condemnation of the deployment of non-white combatants. It was an appeal to white racial unity, one partially aimed at American public opinion. The German philosopher Max Weber spoke for himself and his nation when he angrily accused Britain and France of unleashing “a refuse of Africans and Asiatic savages”.

To help build its case, Germany also set about fabricating a series of atrocity stories everything from supposedly barbarous Indian solders drinking the blood of slain Germans, to French West African troops carrying garlands of severed ears around their necks. Some German soldiers, men whose only contact with Africans had been in the infamous human zoos of the early 20th century, believed the propaganda and were astonished, on being captured by Africans, that their lives were spared and their status as prisoners of war recognised.

“To me”, wrote the American racial theorist Lothrop Stoddard, “the Great War was from the first the white civil war, which, whatever its outcome, must gravely complicate the course of racial relations.” Writing in the immediate postwar years, Stoddard – a Harvard graduate and “exalted cyclops” of the Massachusetts chapter of the Ku Klux Klan – believed that one of the most egregious consequences of the first world war had been a “frightful weakening of the white world”. This weakening, he warned readers of his 1921 book, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy, had “opened up revolutionary, even cataclysmic, possibilities”.

A “renascence of the brown and yellow peoples of Asia” that Stoddard believed had begun long before 1914 had been accelerated by the war. Races previously “kept within evolutionary bounds by the white world’s inherent strength and fundamental solidarity” had, he said, been partially unchained and now posed a threat to a world order founded upon white supremacy. For Stoddard, and the millions in the US and Europe who thought like him, the armistice of 1918 was not the blessed end of 52 months of mechanised bloodletting, but potentially the beginning of a new age of reckoning. All the combatant nations of 1914-18 had been guilty of the same crime they had put guns into the hands of black and brown men and then commanded them to fight and to kill white men. Britain and France had made matters worse by forming alliances with Japan, a nation that Stoddard and many others had viewed with profound unease ever since the Japanese victory over Russia in the war of 1904-05 – “an event the momentous character of which is even now not fully appreciated,” Stoddard wrote.

Lieutenant James Reese in Europe (far left) with the jazz band of the 369th Infantry Regiment. Photograph: Heritage Images/Getty Images

Even if the first world war had been “a white man’s war”, race would nevertheless have been a factor. The war was of its time, an era in which social Darwinian concepts of racial purity and racial degeneracy were in the ascendancy. The belief that war itself was the purifying fire through which races passed in order to be tested and cleansed gripped the minds of many. Helmuth von Moltke, the chief of the German general staff, was highly influenced by social Darwinian notions of racial struggle, and others in the ruling elite shared his views. Many of those who came to view the conflict as a war of attrition had such concepts in the back of their mind.

Just as racial theory had inspired the outraged German denunciations of 1915, the recruitment of its enemies’ non-white legions had itself been informed by racial theory. The French recruited their armies in Africa in the belief that some of Africa’s ethnic groups, the Tukulor, Wolof, Serer and Bambara, were more naturally warlike than others. These people were les races guerrières, whom the infamous French general Charles Mangin would forge into his “force noire”.

So dedicated were the French to these theories that they convinced themselves that West Africans, being supposedly more primitive than Europeans, could better withstand the shock of battle and experienced physical pain less acutely. This justified deploying them as shock troops in the first line of battle. As a result, West African soldiers on the western front between 1917 and 1918 were two-and-a-half times more likely to be killed in action than white French infantrymen. The British held similar views of the people of India. Dismissing most of the people of the subcontinent as passive and effeminate, they only recruited from certain ethnic groups, the so-called “martial races”.

French general Charles Mangin’s ‘force noire’ was made up of African troops.

When the guns fell silent in 1918, both victors and vanquished turned against the black and brown men who had fought in what the victory medals then being struck for each allied soldier called “The Great War for Civilisation”. Among the forces sent to occupy the German Rhineland, under a clause of the armistice, were African American and French African troops. Whereas German complaints about the deployment of black soldiers in the trenches of the western front had largely failed to arouse international sympathy, now the war was over the propaganda campaign that was launched against the black soldiers of the army of occupation was a profound success, eliciting sympathy from the press and the trade union movement in Britain, and within sections of the public in the US.

In 1919 Germans on the socialist left and the nationalist right united to denounce the occupation as “die schwarze Schande” – the black shame. Unsubstantiated accusations were spread across the world that the French African troops were disproportionately guilty of violence and rape. German newspapers dehumanised the Africans, using the term “vertierte Neger” – “animal niggers” – and the artist Karl Götz struck a special medal depicting a German woman chained to a phallus, on which rested a French army helmet. Yet what enabled the German campaign against the black soldiers of the French army to become a global phenomenon was support and assistance from its former enemies.

The campaign’s greatest friend was the British journalist ED Morel, who had been one of the leaders of the “red rubber campaign” that exposed the genocide against the people of the Congo Free State perpetrated by the private army of the king of the Belgians, Leopold II. In 1920 Morel published a pamphlet, The Horror on the Rhine, in which he laid out in emphatic terms the racial neurosis that the war had exposed. “The militarised African, who has shot and bayoneted white men in Europe,” he claimed, “who has had sexual intercourse with white women in Europe, would lose his belief in white superiority.” An official investigation by the US army concluded that there was no evidence for the German claims and that the “black shame” campaign was merely an “adroit political move” to win sympathy and counter the wartime image of Germans as the “Hun”.

In the US, the same racial neurosis inspired Lothrop Stoddard’s fellow Klansmen to embark upon a wave of murder and intimidation designed to ensure that any hopes of racial justice nursed by the thousands of African American soldiers then returning from the western front were snuffed out. In 1919 at least 19 African American soldiers were lynched in the US, some for wearing their army uniforms in public, as they were perfectly entitled to do. In 26 American cities, black communities were attacked and people murdered in the streets, during the so-called and now forgotten “red summer”.

Similar events took place in Britain, and are just as lost to popular memory. There were nine so-called race riots across Britain in 1919. Black men who had worked on ships and in the factories, along with those who had fought for Britain at the front, were attacked by white mobs, and they and their families driven from their homes. In Liverpool, Charles Wooten, a sailor who had served Britain in the war, was killed by a mob in the Liverpool docks. His murder can only be described as a lynching.

A century on, if we as a nation are serious about remembrance, then the process of remembering must not come to an end this November. As well as remembering the service of the non-white soldiers and auxiliaries of the first world war, we have also to remember what happened to them and their dreams of justice in the months and years after the armistice.


Charles (1892) Mangin Auction Price Results

Description: Stillleben mit Äpfeln, Birnen und Teekanne. Öl/Lwd. (min. rest., Ränder mit Farbverlusten), re. u. sign. 37,5x 43,5 cm. R. .

Auction House: Dannenberg

Lot 648 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) olieverfschilderij op…

Auction Date: Jun 07, 2020

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) olieverfschilderij op paneel : "Impressionistische zonsondergang" - 29,5 x 39,5 getekend

20th Cent. Belgian oil on panel - signed Charles Mangin .

Lot 4754 : CHARLES MANGIN (ANTWERP 1892-1977), ATTRIBUTED TO.

Auction Date: Oct 10, 2019

Description: Still life with red gurnard. Oil on canvas on panel. Signed lower left. Dim. 22 x 34.5 cm. .

Location: Klaaswaal, NL

Auction House: Veilinghuis de Ruiter

Lot 494 : Nature morte aux fleurs. Huile sur toile. Signé en bas à droite. 70 x 65 cm

Auction Date: Oct 22, 2016

Description: Nature morte aux fleurs. Huile sur toile. Signé en bas à droite. 70 x 65 cm .

Location: Bruxelles, BE

Auction House: Haynault

Lot 225 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977) A PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG

Auction Date: Jun 21, 2014

Estimate: 5,000 Kč - 10,000 Kč

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977)
A PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG SPANISH WOMAN. A portrait of a young dark-skinned lady with flowers in her hair. Oil on canvas, 36x31 cm, signed lower right ɼ. Mangin'. Framed. Condition A.

Charles Mangin (1892-1977)
PORTRÉT MLADÉ ŠPANĚLKY. Podobizna mladé dívky se snědou tváří a květinami ve vlasech. Olej na plátně, 36x31 cm, sign. vpravo dole „C. Mangin". Rámováno. Stav A.

Charles Mangin (1892-1977)
PORTRÄT EINER JUNGEN SPANIERIN. Abbildung eines jungen Mädchens mit dunklem Haut und Blumen im Haar. Öl auf Leinwand, 36x31 cm, rechts unten sign. „C. Mangin". Gerahmt. Zustand A.
.

Location: 603 00 BRNO, CZ

Auction House: Auction House Zezula

Lot 651 : CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Portret van een dame

Auction Date: Mar 26, 2013

Description: CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Portret van een dame met bloemenkrans. Doek. Getekend ɼ. Mangin'. In kader. Afmetingen: 36 x 31 .

Auction House: Bernaerts Auctioneers

Lot 646 : CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met

Auction Date: Mar 26, 2013

Description: CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met gerbera's en snuisterijen. Doek. Getekend ɼ. Mangin'. Afmetingen: 61 x 80 .

Auction House: Bernaerts Auctioneers

Lot 540 : CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Bloemstilleven met

Auction Date: Feb 05, 2013

Description: CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Bloemstilleven met viooltjes. Doek. Getekend ɼ. Mangin'. Nature morte aux violettes. Toile. Signée ɼ. Mangin'. 34 x 28.5 .

Auction House: Bernaerts Auctioneers

Lot 793 : CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Ballerina. Doek.

Auction Date: Sep 11, 2012

Description: CHARLES MANGIN (1892 - 1977) Ballerina. Doek. Getekend ɼ Mangin'. Afmetingen : 50 x 40.5 .

Auction House: Bernaerts Auctioneers

Lot 469 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977). An Oil on Canvas,

Auction Date: Apr 22, 2012

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977). An Oil on Canvas, still life with anemones and tulips 31 ins x 31 ins (79 cms x 79 cms). In a carved & giltwood frame 41½ ins x 41½ ins (105 cms x 105 cms). .

Location: Doncaster, YSS, UK

Auction House: Wilkinson's Auctioneers

Lot 470 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977). A Framed Oil on

Auction Date: Apr 22, 2012

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977). A Framed Oil on Canvas, still life with basket of roses 27½ ins x 31½ ins (70 cms x 80 cms). .

Location: Doncaster, YSS, UK

Auction House: Wilkinson's Auctioneers

Lot 471 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977). A Large Oil on Board,

Auction Date: Apr 22, 2012

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977). A Large Oil on Board, a large framed still life depicting asters and pink roses 32½ ins x 47½ ins (83 cms x 121 cms). .

Location: Doncaster, YSS, UK

Auction House: Wilkinson's Auctioneers

Lot 1045 : MANGIN CHARLES 1892 Kleurfontein Olie op doek Get.

Auction Date: Mar 08, 2012

Description: MANGIN CHARLES 1892 Kleurfontein Olie op doek Get. 50 x 33 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1044 : MANGIN CHARLES 1892 Fantasie langs het water Olie

Auction Date: Mar 08, 2012

Description: MANGIN CHARLES 1892 Fantasie langs het water Olie op doek Get. 70 x 80 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 551 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé

Auction Date: May 15, 2011

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 78x119cm cadre de style doré patiné - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 634 : MANGIN CHARLES 1892 - 1977 Vaas met bloemen Vase

Auction Date: Apr 28, 2011

Description: MANGIN CHARLES 1892 - 1977
Vaas met bloemen Vase fleuri Olie op doek. Huile sur toile
Get. Sig.
55 x 60 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 485 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de

Auction Date: Mar 27, 2011

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 50x32cm cadre tissu et argenté - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 457 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de

Auction Date: Feb 06, 2011

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 50x32cm cadre tissu et argenté - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 459 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Portait de femme- signé

Auction Date: Feb 06, 2011

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Portait de femme- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 35x30cm cadre moderne - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 562 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de

Auction Date: Dec 05, 2010

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 50x32cm cadre tissu et argenté .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 574 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de

Auction Date: Oct 24, 2010

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 50x32cm cadre tissu et argenté - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 639 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Vreemd landschap.

Auction Date: Oct 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Vreemd landschap. Paysage fantastique Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 638 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Portret van een vrouw

Auction Date: Oct 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Portret van een vrouw . Portrait de femme Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 35 x 30 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 521 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de

Auction Date: Sep 05, 2010

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Composition- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 50x32cm cadre tissu et argenté - .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 384 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé

Auction Date: Jun 27, 2010

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 78x119cm cadre de style doré patiné - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 438 : MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé

Auction Date: May 09, 2010

Description: MANGIN C. - Tableau HST -Bouquet de fleurs- signé et de MANGIN C. (Charles) (Anvers 1892, 1977) 78x119cm cadre de style doré patiné - (photo) .

Location: Maisieres, BE

Auction House: Monsantic.com

Lot 590 : MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Begijntjes in een

Auction Date: Apr 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Begijntjes in een steegBéguins dans une ruelle, Olie op doek. Huile sur toile, Get. Sig., 53 x 35 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 588 : MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Stilleven met

Auction Date: Apr 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Stilleven met zeevruchtenNature morte aux fruits de mer, Olie op karton. Carton, Get. Sig., 33 x 59 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 589 : MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Vissers bij

Auction Date: Apr 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Vissers bij zonsopgangPêcheurs au lever du soleil, Acryl/doek. toile, Get. Sig., 35 x 46 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 591 : MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Stilleven met rozen

Auction Date: Apr 20, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES [1892-1977] , Stilleven met rozen in een witte vaasNature morte aux roses dans un vase blanc, Olie op doek. Huile sur toile, Get. Sig., 35 x 30 .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 947 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Nachtelijk

Auction Date: Mar 25, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Nachtelijk winterlandschap. Impression de nuit Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 60 x 70 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 948 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Rode, oranje bloemen

Auction Date: Mar 25, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Rode, oranje bloemen en klimop in een vaas. Fleurs rouges et oranges et lierre dans un vase Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 50 x 60 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 949 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Post-apocalyptisch

Auction Date: Mar 25, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Post-apocalyptisch landschap. Paysage post-apocalyptique Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 23 x 64 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 950 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met peren.

Auction Date: Mar 25, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met peren. Nature morte aux poires Olie op karton. Carton. .Get. Sig.. . 32 x 44 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 951 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Compositie .

Auction Date: Mar 25, 2010

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Compositie . Composition Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 50 x 32 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 548 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Drie ruikers bloemen

Auction Date: Nov 24, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Drie ruikers bloemen en twee appels. Trois bouquets de fleurs et deux pommes Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 85 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 549 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Gedroogde witte

Auction Date: Nov 24, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Gedroogde witte bloementuil en blauwe distel. Fleurs blanches sechées et chardon bleu Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 550 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Drie paarse bloemen

Auction Date: Nov 24, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Drie paarse bloemen in een papieren vaas. Trois fleurs pourpres dans un vase en papier Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 547 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Wilde bloemen in een

Auction Date: Nov 24, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Wilde bloemen in een witte vaas. Fleurs sauvages dans un vase blanc Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 80 x 100 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 551 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Gele heidebloemen in

Auction Date: Nov 24, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Gele heidebloemen in een vaas. Fleurs de bruyère jaunes dans un vase Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 60 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 315 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977).

Auction Date: Sep 01, 2009

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977). .

Location: Brussels, BE

Auction House: Galerie Moderne

Lot 1003 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met wild.

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met wild. Nature morte au gibier Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 90 x 100 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1005 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Boom in een

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Boom in een sneeuwlandschap. Arbre dans un paysage enneigé Olie op paneel. Huile sur panneau.. .Get. Sig.. . 35 x 30 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1006 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met druiven

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met druiven en passievrucht. Nature morte aux raisins et fruits de la passion Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 30 x 33 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1007 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Rivier in een onaards

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Rivier in een onaards landschap. Rivière dans un paysage surréel Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1002 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Bloemenvaas. Vase

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Bloemenvaas. Vase fleuri Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 81 x 101 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 1004 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met vissen.

Auction Date: May 28, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met vissen. Nature morte aux poissons Olie op paneel. Huile sur panneau.. .Get. Sig.. . 60 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 212 : Charles Mangin (1892-1977).

Auction Date: May 19, 2009

Description: Charles Mangin (1892-1977). .

Location: Brussels, BE

Auction House: Galerie Moderne

Lot 498 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Veelkleurige

Auction Date: Apr 29, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Veelkleurige rozentuil in blauwe vaas. Vase bleu aux roses colorées Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 70 x 80 cm .

Auction House: Campo & Campo

Lot 500 : MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met oesters

Auction Date: Apr 29, 2009

Description: MANGIN CHARLES (1892 - 1977) Stilleven met oesters en een fles jenever. Nature morte aux huîtres et bouteille de genièvre Olie op doek. Huile sur toile. .Get. Sig.. . 45 x 40 cm .


Contrary to popular belief, Mangin’s army project, the “Force Noire” [1] (“Black Forces”), was not designed for the Great War. The idea resulted from the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), which revealed to officers that the next war would be a war of the masses. Convinced that he must find enough soldiers, Mangin was very interested in the “Force Jaune” (“Yellow Forces”), which was a project defended by French officers in Asia. Back in Africa in 1907, Mangin developed a project that rejected the segregationist U.S. army model but was inspired by the British colonial theories on “martial races”. He also sought to make the project compatible with the French Republic, for example by promoting colonial troops in the French army. He did so by limiting possible promotions to the grade of captain. Thus, he developed a racialising vision that considered African soldiers as combat-capable and saw them as a pool of men from which to recruit.

When the war began, Charles Mangin came back to France. He was given command of the 5 th Infantry Division (August 1914-June 1916), with which he won the Battle of Charleroi. With the 11 th Army Corps (June-December 1916), he took Fort Douaumont on 24 October 1916. As commander-in-chief of the Sixth Army, he was dismissed after the failure of the offensive of the Chemin des Dames while being accused by the Senegalese deputy Blaise Diagne (1872-1934) of “massacring” the black troops. Yet he quickly returned to lead troops in December 1917, assuming control of the 9 th Corps, then taking command of the 10 th Army (June-November 1918), with which he led the great offensive of July 1918 that would upset the Germans. After the war, he was responsible for the Senegalese riflemen occupying the Rhineland. During this time the soldiers were subjected to significant racism and were referred to as “Schwarze Schmach” (“black shame”) by the German population. Contrary to Mangin’s will, the high command could do little against this.


Julie d'Andurain, École Militaire / Paris-Sorbonne


Contrary to popular belief, Mangin’s army project, the “Force Noire” [1] (“Black Forces”), was not designed for the Great War. The idea resulted from the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), which revealed to officers that the next war would be a war of the masses. Convinced that he must find enough soldiers, Mangin was very interested in the “Force Jaune” (“Yellow Forces”), which was a project defended by French officers in Asia. Back in Africa in 1907, Mangin developed a project that rejected the segregationist U.S. army model but was inspired by the British colonial theories on “martial races”. He also sought to make the project compatible with the French Republic, for example by promoting colonial troops in the French army. He did so by limiting possible promotions to the grade of captain. Thus, he developed a racialising vision that considered African soldiers as combat-capable and saw them as a pool of men from which to recruit.

When the war began, Charles Mangin came back to France. He was given command of the 5 th Infantry Division (August 1914-June 1916), with which he won the Battle of Charleroi. With the 11 th Army Corps (June-December 1916), he took Fort Douaumont on 24 October 1916. As commander-in-chief of the Sixth Army, he was dismissed after the failure of the offensive of the Chemin des Dames while being accused by the Senegalese deputy Blaise Diagne (1872-1934) of “massacring” the black troops. Yet he quickly returned to lead troops in December 1917, assuming control of the 9 th Corps, then taking command of the 10 th Army (June-November 1918), with which he led the great offensive of July 1918 that would upset the Germans. After the war, he was responsible for the Senegalese riflemen occupying the Rhineland. During this time the soldiers were subjected to significant racism and were referred to as “Schwarze Schmach” (“black shame”) by the German population. Contrary to Mangin’s will, the high command could do little against this.


Julie d'Andurain, École Militaire / Paris-Sorbonne


Aisne-Marne Offensive, 18 July-6 August 1918

The Aisne-Marne Offensive was the second phase of the Second Battle of the Marne (15 July-6 August) and marked a major turning point in the fighting on the Western Front in 1918. The first phase of the battle had been the German Champagne-Marne Offensive, which had begun on 15 July with attacks east and west of Reims. The attacks east of the city had met with little success, but the attack to the west, by the German Seventh Army under General Max von Boehn, had advanced four miles, creating a beachhead on the southern side of the Marne. At its greatest extent the German salient reached from Soissons in the north west, to Château Thierry at its south west corner and then east along the Marne.

One positive result of the earlier German successes had been the appointment of Ferdinand Foch as overall Commander in Chief on the Western Front. Even before the German offensive on the Marne he had been planning a massive counterattack in the area. This was to involve four French armies attacking all around the salient created during the Third Battle of the Aisne. The main attack was to come from the west and would be launched by the French Tenth Army (General Charles Mangin) with the Sixth in support to his south (General Jean Degoutte). Further around the line the Fifth (General Henri Berthelot) and Ninth (Genereal M. A. H. de Mitry) would launch supporting attacks on the southern flank of the German salient.

This would be an Allied attack, with British and Italian Divisions involved. It would also be a major American battle. The American 1st and 2nd Divisions were with the Tenth Army, while the Sixth and Ninth Armies each contained three American Divisions. These were massive formations, each containing 28,000 men, making them twice the size of their British, French or German equivalents. The attack would be supported by 350 Allied tanks.

The main attack was launched on 18 July by Mangin, with fourteen divisions from the Tenth and Sixth armies. All around the line the Allies advanced between two and five miles. That night the Germans were forced to retreat back across the Marne. The rapid Allied advance threatened German communications within the salient and even offered the chance of trapping the German troops around Château Thierry. Facing with this massive Allied counterattack Ludendorff ordered his troops to pull out of the salient to form a new defensive line along the line of the Aisne and Velse rivers. The new line began to take shape on 3 August, the day after Soissons had been liberated. On 6 August the Americans probed the new line and were repulsed, ending the offensive.

The Aisne-Marne offensive marked a key turning point in the fighting of 1918. It ended the series of German victories that had begun on the Somme in March 1918 and opened the way for the great Allied offensive that would start at Amiens on 8 August. Ludendorff&rsquos great gamble to end the war before the full strength of the American army could be deployed had failed.