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Key Pittman

Key Pittman

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Key Pittman was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, on 19th September, 1872. He studied law at Southwestern University and was admitted to the bar in 1892. Pittman worked as a lawyer in Seattle before joining the gold rush to Klondike, Alaska, in 1897. After working as a miner for three years he returned to work as a lawyer in 1901.

A member of the Democratic Party Pittman was elected to the Senate in 1913. He served on the Committee of Territories, Committee on Industrial Expositions and Committee on Foreign Relations. Key Pittman died in Reno, Nevada, on 10th November, 1940.

Key Pittman

Nevada has almost always ranked near the bottom in state population, yet its leaders in Washington often have been among the nation's most powerful.

That might seem contradictory. But the key reason has been the United States Senate. Like most legislative bodies, it long has operated on the seniority system: the longer a senator serves, the likelier he or she will chair a committee, especially a powerful one like Appropriations, which doles out federal funds, or Judiciary, which considers some of the president's most important appointments.

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Key PITTMAN, Congress, NV (1872-1940)

PITTMAN Key , a Senator from Nevada born in Vicksburg, Warren County, Miss., September 12, 1872 educated by private tutors and at the Southwestern Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn. studied law admitted to the bar in 1892 and commenced practice in Seattle, Wash. joined in the gold rush to Klondike, Alaska, in 1897 and worked as a miner until 1901 practiced law in Alaska moved to the silver boom-town of Tonopah, Nev., in 1902 and continued the practice of law appointed to represent the State of Nevada at the St. Louis Exposition, the Lewis and Clark Exposition, and the irrigation congress unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1910 elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1913 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of George S. Nixon reelected in 1916, 1922, 1928 and 1934 and served from January 29, 1913, until his death had been reelected in 1940 for the term beginning January 3, 1941 served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate during the Seventy-third through Seventy-sixth Congresses chairman, Committee on Territories (Sixty-third through Sixty-fifth Congresses), Committee on Industrial Expositions (Sixty-sixth Congress), Committee on Foreign Relations (Seventy-third through Seventy-sixth Congresses) died in Reno, Nev., November 10, 1940 interment in Mountain View Cemetery.


Early years

Pittman was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1872. He had a younger brother Vail, who would later serve as Governor of Nevada. [1]

Pittman was educated by private tutors and at the Southwestern Presbyterian University in Clarksville, Tennessee. He studied law, then later became a lawyer. In 1897, Pittman joined in the Klondike Gold Rush and worked as a miner until 1901.

Pittman moved to Tonopah, Nevada, in 1902 and continued the practice of law. He represented Nevada at the St. Louis Exposition, the Lewis & Clark Centennial Exposition, and the National Irrigation Congress. [ citation needed ]

Political career

In 1910, he made an unsuccessful run for the Senate. Later, he was elected as a Democrat to the Senate in 1913 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of George S. Nixon, and served until his death in 1940.

Between 1933 and 1940, during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Pittman was the chairman of the powerful Committee on Foreign Relations and a member of the Committee on Territories and the Committee on Industrial Expositions. In addition, during those years Pittman was also President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

Among his legislation is the Pittman–Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 which set up a formula for federal sharing of ammunition tax revenue for establishing state wildlife areas. The program is still in effect. [ citation needed ] The Key Pittman Wildlife Management Area near Hiko, Nevada, which encompasses the Frenchy and Nesbitt Lakes, is named in his honor.

Death and legacy

It was rumored for years that Pittman died before his final election in 1940, and that Democratic party leaders kept the body in Reno's Riverside Hotel [2] bathtub full of ice until he was reelected so Governor Edward Carville, a fellow Democrat, could appoint a replacement. While the rumor was false the truth was, as former Nevada State Archivist Guy Rocha wrote, "just as disreputable". Pittman suffered a severe heart attack just before the election on 5 November, and two doctors told his aides before the election that death was imminent. To avoid affecting the election, the party told the press that the senator was hospitalized for exhaustion and that his condition was not serious. Pittman died on 10 November at the Washoe General Hospital in Reno, Nevada. [3]

Several pieces of legislation bore his name, including the Pittman Act of 1918 and the Pittman–Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937.

The Pittman section of the Alaska Railroad, more commonly known today as the community of Meadow Lakes west of Wasilla, was also named for him. [4] Pittman Road runs north from its intersection with the George Parks Highway at "downtown" Meadow Lakes.


Compiling a federal legislative history may seem intimidating at first glance, but it does not have to be. In this research guide, we will walk you through the steps you can use to compile your own federal legislative history.

Harris and Ewing. Woman columnist advocates repeal of Neutrality Act to allow U.S. freedom of policy. Washington, D.C., April 26. Staging her second appearance before Senate Committees within a week, Dorothy Thompson, columnist, sat down before Foreign Affairs Chairman Key Pittman and told him and members that neutrality laws should be repealed to allow the country to be free in forming policies in foreign affairs. 1939. Harris & Ewing Collection. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

When you begin your legislative history research, the first thing you should ask yourself is whether you need to compile your own federal legislative history. In several cases, someone might have already done the work for you, and compiled a legislative history report. To find more information about resources for pre-compiled legislative history reports, select the "Locating a Compiled Federal Legislative History" menu page in this guide.

If you were not able to find a pre-compiled legislative history report, you will have to roll up your sleeves and compile your own. To begin, you have to use the information you already have about the legislation of interest to lead you to other important citation information. If you are beginning with a U.S. Code citation, you will want to use the information on the "How to Trace Federal Legislation" page in this guide to find the public law numbers, U.S. Statutes at Large citations, and bill information for both the legislation that gave rise to that section of the U.S. Code and any legislation that amended it.

Once you have this citation information, you will want to use it to find the legislative history documents that will make up your own legislative history report. We strongly suggest using the different pages of this "Beginner's Guide" to help you complete your research.

Keep in mind, when using legislative history documents in court, that judges are not of one mind as to the weight they give a legislative history document. Some judges believe these documents are invaluable in cases where the legislation is not necessarily clear from its text, while others believe these documents are at best an imperfect representation of the legislative intent.*

*Several legal scholars have examined the treatment of legislative history by judges. For a deeper discussion of these opposing views, see the article linked below:

--> Pittman, Key, 1872-1940

Key Pittman was a United States senator from Nevada, who served from 1913-1940.

From the description of [Key Pittman Collection]. 1939-1940. (University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 491372853

Lawyer and U.S. senator from Nevada.

From the description of Papers of Key Pittman, 1898-1951. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84471348

From the description of Key Pittman papers, 1886-1941. (Nevada State Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 655893666

  • 1872, Sept. 19 : Born, Vicksburg, Miss.
  • 1890 : Attended Southwestern Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn.
  • 1892 : Admitted to bar and began law practice, Seattle, Wash.
  • 1897 - 1899 : Joined gold rush to Alaskan Klondike and worked as a miner
  • 1897 - 1901 :
  • Practiced law in Alaska counsel for Australians in Dawson, Alaska Took part in establishing “consent” government for Nome, Alaska
  • 1899 : First prosecuting attorney of Nome, Alaska
  • 1900 : Married Mimosa June Gates (died 1952)
  • 1901 : Moved to Tonopah, Nev. continued law practice
  • 1910 : Unsuccessful Democratic candidate for the United States Senate
  • 1912 : Elected to United States Senate
  • 1924 : Secretary, Committee on Platforms and Resolutions, Democratic Party national convention
  • 1933 : Delegate, World Economic Conference, London, England
  • 1933 - 1940 :
  • Chairman, Senate Foreign Relations Committee President pro tempore, United States Senate
  • 1940, Nov. 10 : Died, Reno, Nev.

From the guide to the Key Pittman Papers, 1898-1951, (bulk 1912-1940), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

KEY Genealogy

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Key Pittman - History

Wildlife Restoration Act

The Wildlife Restoration Act (WR), commonly referred to as the Pittman-Robertson (PR) Act, was sponsored by Senator Key Pittman of Nevada and Representative Willis Robertson of Virginia. The legislation was a cooperation between states, Federal Government, conservation groups and the sporting arms industry. The legislation was drafted by Carl Shoemaker and was passed in 1937.

The Wildlife Restoration Act provides grant funds to states, the District of Columbia and insular areas that have passed assent legislation. This means state legislation must be in effect and remain in effect restricting the use of revenue from license fees for use only by fish and wildlife agency. This Act later became the model for the Sport Fish Restoration Act.

Revenues from manufacturers&rsquo excise taxes on firearms, ammunition, archery equipment and arrow components are transferred or deposited to the Wildlife Restoration Account. The interest earned on the WR Account is transferred to the North American Wetlands Conservation Fund. Import duties on firearms and ammunition are deposited in the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund.

Congressional amendments to the WR Act occurred in 1951, 1954, 1970, 1972, 1997, 2000 and 2005. These amendments made changes to taxable items and tax rates as well as authorizations and distribution of the funds.

The WR Act authorizes annual distributions from the Wildlife Restoration Account for the following:

Carla Hughes Trial Update: The Penalty Phase

The penalty phase is about to begin. The same jury that convicted Carla Hughes of capital murder will now have to decide whether she should get the death penalty, or life in prison. That may sound like a fairly straightforward either/or proposition. However, the way the law requires the jury to reach that decision is a bit complicated.

During the sentencing phase, the State puts forth evidence of “aggravating factors.” Aggravating factors are basically facts that make the crime worthy of imposing the death penalty. Mississippi law limits those factors to the following:

(a) The capital offense was committed by a person under sentence of imprisonment.

(b) The defendant was previously convicted of another capital offense or of a felony involving the use or threat of violence to the person.

(c) The defendant knowingly created a great risk of death to many persons.

(d) The capital offense was committed while the defendant was engaged in the commission of, or while fleeing after committing one of the following crimes: robbery, rape, arson, burglary, kidnaping, air piracy, certain sex crimes, child abuse, or unlawful use of an explosive device.

(e) The capital offense was committed while attempting to evade arrest or trying to escape from custody.

(f) The capital offense was committed for pecuniary gain.

(g) The capital offense was committed to interrupt government functions or law enforcement.

(h) The capital offense was especially heinous, atrocious and cruel.

See Mississippi Code Annotated Section 99-19-101.

The defense will then have an opportunity to put on “mitigation evidence,” or evidence that tends to indicate the death penalty is not appropriate. Under the same statute, the law recognizes the following mitigating factors:

(a) The defendant has no significant prior criminal history.

(b) The defendant was suffering from extreme emotional disturbance.

(c) The victim was a participant in, or consented to, the defendant’s act.

(d) The defendant was an accomplice and played a minor role in the capital crime.

(e) The defendant acted under duress or under substantial domination of another person.

(f) The defendant’s capacity to appreciate the criminality of his conduct, or to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law was diminished.

(g) The age of the defendant at the time of the crime.

Once both sides have presented their evidence, the jury will deliberate and determine the sentence. In order to return a sentence of death, the jury must find, in writing, that (1) the State has proven, beyond a reasonable doubt, sufficient aggravating factors to justify imposition of the death penalty and (2) there are insufficient mitigating factors to outweigh the aggravating factors.

The sentence of death must be unanimous. If the jury is unable to reach a decision as to the sentence, then the defendant is automatically sentenced to life in prison.

Beatport’s Definitive History of Techno

In the decaying post-industrial Midwestern city of Detroit, a young Black man by the name of Juan Atkins manifested an escape hatch into the future with the aid of his Korg MS10 synth. Inspired by the work of futurist Alvin Toffler, whose book Future Shock he studied at school, Atkins, still only in his teens, set about creating music that could transport listeners to an imagined future. Crumbling Motor City became glistening Techno City, as Atkins channeled elements of funk and soul through automated beats into innovative electronic compositions that migrated over the Atlantic to Europe as part of an ongoing cultural exchange. 40 years later, the music he christened “techno” has branched off into numerous styles and sub-genres, but the ethos remains the same: futurism, optimism, escape, catharsis and people dancing in unity to the electronic beats.

The history of Detroit techno is populated by the influence of Black electronic music, but also determined by European electronic pioneers and ignited by the socio-economic and cultural circumstances of Motor City itself. Going all the way back to Berry Gordy’s Motown, there’s a distinct attitude and rhythm that exists only in Detroit. From Martha and the Vandellas’ hit “ Dancing in the Street ” to “ The Tracks Of My Tears ” by Smokey Robinson, Gordy’s label was a hit factory, pushing out one big song after another, modeled on the production lines at the car factories that dominated industry in Detroit.

Disco DJs and funk bands preceded the birth of Detroit techno, both integral to the city’s Black club culture in the years before techno arrived. Legendary DJs such as Ken Collier primed the city for its first wave of techno, with the 4ࡪ heartbeat of disco pumping away on the dance floors of clubs such as Pink Poodle, Millie’s and Flamingo. The disco influence was especially pertinent for techno pioneer Kevin Saunderson, who lived in New York when he was a kid. After moving to Detroit when he was nine, Kevin would still visit New York every summer as his brothers were still living there. During those trips he made it to the Paradise Garage, where Larry Levan kept the dance floor ignited with disco and proto-house cuts all night long. Tracks like First Choice “ Love Thang ” and Cerrone “ Supernature ” inspiring young Kevin.

Later, it was the Electrifying Mojo who became Detroit’s foremost influence with his show on WGPR-FM. As Captain of the mothership he would take listeners on a four-hour long odyssey of music and themed segments, presenting his audience with a broad selection from Prince b-sides and rarities, to Kraftwerk’s “ Numbers ”, Parliament’s “ Flashlight ” and much much more. His shows were pivotal to the birth of techno, introducing pioneers like Juan Atkins and Carl Craig to programmed electronic beats, and new wave innovators like Gary Numan and Depeche Mode. Numan’s “ Cars ” a fitting anthem for the city’s automotive pulse. New wave, industrial and eighties electronic acts were highly influential at the time as well as bands like the B-52s, whose “Mesopotamia” was a favourite of Mojo’s.

Kraftwerk are considered the godfathers of techno, and contemporary electronic music. Interestingly, Detroit groups The Stooges and MC5 were among Kraftwerk’s early influences, as was Motown Records, according to the group’s later member Karl Bartos. Tracks like “Numbers and “ Trans-Europe Express ” inspired Arthur Baker and Afrika Bambaataa to produce “ Planet Rock ”, giving birth to electro, a precursor to techno. “ Clear ” by Cybotron, (AKA Juan Atkins and Rik Davis) is another pivotal track in the electro world, which we’ll come back to later.

THE 1980s

A young Juan Atkins managed to convince his grandmother to buy him a Korg MS10, which he used for his earliest experiments. He’d already been playing bass in garage funk bands as a teen, and spotted the synth in a back room at a music shop called Brunel’s during a visit there with his grandmother. After that, he picked up the Pro One by Sequential Circuits, a mini version of their famous Prophet 5 synthesiser.

In 1981, The Electrifying Mojo debuted proto-techno tracks like “ Shari Vari ” by A Number Of Names and Cybotron’s “ Alleys Of Your Mind ”. Later, Atkins and Davis’ 1982 jam “‘ Cosmic Cars ”’ would play out like a follow up to Gary Numan’s 1979 release. Elsewhere, Cybotron’s “Techno City” was the first Motor City track to use the term ‘techno’ and Model 500’s “ No UFOs ” marks the point where a new sound began to emerge.

In 1983 Roland released the TR-909 drum machine. That, along with their 808, proved to be pivotal in the development of contemporary electronic music. A shift in sound, driven by the Japanese manufacturer’s machines, happened soon afterwards as electro evolved into techno.

By 1985, Juan Atkins was operating on his own under the Model 500 alias. His first cut, “No UFOs”, was a local hit and heralded the genesis of techno. The follow up, “ Night Drive (Thru Babylon) ” has clear echoes of Kraftwerk’s signature sound: spoken-word narrative, futuristic atmospheres, and soul and funk cocooned inside icy electronics. And while this sound was found on many of Atkins’ early releases, each was also written with his own distinct Detroit spin. Juan, along with high school friends Kevin Saunderson, Derrick May* and Eddie Fowkles, started to create the soundtrack to a better future, an escape from the post-industrial depression their city was experiencing

*Derrick May has since been accused of sexual assault by multiple women.

Eddie was part of Juan’s Deep Space crew and was among the first to release on Atkins’ Metroplex label, which laid down the blueprints for Detroit techno. “ Goodbye Kiss ”, by Fowlkes, was released in 1986, a year after Metroplex launched. It was the label’s sixth release, and became a city-wide jam. The following year, Derrick May released “ Strings Of Life ” as Rhythim Is Rhythim, alongside “ The Sound ” by Reese & Santonio (Kevin Saunderson and Santonio Echols), “ When We Used To Play ” by Blake Baxter, and “ Triangle Of Love ” by Kreem (Atkins and Saunderson). Also active in this era were Anthony “Shake” Shakir, Alan Oldham, Norm Talley, mobile DJs like Delano Smith, and several other early techno architects, all of whom contributed to shaping Detroit’s emergent sound, which rivaled Chicago’s thriving house scene. Two key venues, Cheeks and, later, The Music Institute, were at the heart of the early Detroit techno scene.

Across the Atlantic, these seminal cuts were flowing into specialist record shops in London, Manchester and numerous other cities across Europe. Electro records were the soundtrack to the new hip hop subculture, which was exported out of New York and onto the streets of Europe’s cities, towns, and villages. And as the decade progressed, tracks like Cybotron’s “Clear” re-emerged as cult classics, bringing the futuristic Detroit sound to Europe’s youth on the dance floors of clubs like Berlin’s Metropol, Le Palace and Les Bains Douche in Paris, London’s Jungle club and the Blitz, and Spain’s La Ruta del Bakalao. Many of these venues were gay or Black clubs, and provided patrons a heady mix of disco, funk, HI-NRG, EBM, new beat, new wave, industrial and early house and techno records.

By 1988, the popularity of this emergent genre was reaching new heights on both sides of the Atlantic, as Kevin Saunderson unleashed “ Big Fun ” and “ Good Life ” as Inner City with Paris Grey. Both tracks were globally successful, turning Saunderson into an overnight pop star just as acid house was exploding in popularity in the UK and across Europe. Suddenly songs like “Strings Of Life” became part of the summer soundtrack, and could be heard at many of the summer’s biggest outdoor raves: Sunrise, Energy, and Biology held crowds of 25,000 or more, as young ravers traveled from around the UK to fields on the outskirts of London to party night and day.

Meanwhile in Manchester, a club once known locally as stronghold for jazz funk began putting on acid house nights, as The Haçienda set the stage for the Madchester era that would follow for many years and give birth to acts like A Guy Called Gerald and 808 State. Gerald’s classic “ Voodoo Ray ” was an instant acid house anthem, while his 1989 track “ Emotions Electric ” epitomised the hedonism and hazy outdoor euphoria of the various raves that took place all over the UK. Similarly, 808 State’s “ Pacific State ” captured the emotion of the era.

Though one of the era’s biggest turning points came in 1988, when UK journalist Neil Rushton compiled Techno! (The New Dance Sound Of Detroit) . The compilation was signed by Virgin Records, and helped establish Detroit techno in Britain. Rushton’s compilation, the first official release of its kind, landed in ‘88, but it wasn’t until the following year when its impact was fully felt. Music fans who were already familiar with early Atkins releases were formally introduced to the Detroit sound with a release that brought together a crew of pioneers on one record for the first time. It was part of a burgeoning connection between techno’s birthplace and the continent where it was truly thriving. And soon, UK artists like Kirk DeGiorgio, Mark Archer (Altern8), the late Matt Cogger (who worked for Transmat in the late eighties), Frankie Foncett, Lee “In Sync” Purkiss (who went on to launch Fat Cat Records) and more began visiting Detroit in order to connect with the pioneers. They worked in the studios of Atkins and May, forming bonds that led to the creation of music that was more authentic than many of the early British attempts to emulate Motor City acts like B12 and The Black Dog initially taken direct influence from The D, whileCogger’s ‘Artemis’ (as Neuropolitique) was recorded at Metroplex Studios, for example. Pirate station Kiss FM hired Colin Dale and Colin Faver to host shows, both using their slots to showcase early techno. Both Dale and Faver were essential to the proliferation of techno in London.

Detroit’s pioneers also visited the UK, playing live shows and DJ sets to varying degrees of success — some parts of the country weren’t quite ready for the music. Darren Mohammed of Adrenalin M.O.D. went on to record “Heychild’s Theme” as Heychild in 1989, an early UK techno classic. The Black Dog (Ken Downie, Ed Handley and Andy Turner) emerged with their first release “Age Of Slack” the same year, followed by “ Virtual ”.

Back in Detroit, another radio personality was becoming an anonymous phenomenon. The Wizard, a faceless DJ whose dynamic precision, quick mixing and live re-edits won him a loyal fanbase on local radio station WJLB. Real name Jeff Mills, The Wizard was initially a member of the industrial group Final Cut. While things didn’t quite work out, the project ended up connecting him with “Mad” Mike Banks. Together they set up Underground Resistance, inspired by the success of independent Detroit outfits Metroplex, KMS and Transmat.

UR had a clear objective and ethos, conceived to oppose the powerful entities that controlled the music industry. Mills and Banks (later joined by Robert Hood) brought a strong purposeful, empowering edge to the music. Put simply, Underground Resistance was a game changer. The incendiary performances of Jeff Mills, Mike Banks and Robert Hood, along with their militant dress code, ethos and mission statements etched into their records, added a whole new dimension to the music. Initially centred on their own often diverse, uncompromising, sometimes soulful, sound, with cuts like “Transition”, “ Planet X ”, “ Jupiter Jazz ” and the confrontational “ Fuck The Majors ,” which features the words, “Message to all the murderers on the the Detroit Police Force — we’ll see you in hell!”, with a dedication to Malice Green, who was beaten to death by Detroit police officers in 1992. UR also released Blake Baxter’s mesmerising “ When a Thought Becomes U ”, DJ Rolando’s timeless 1999 track “ Knights Of The Jaguar ,” and some of Drexciya’s early material, from “ Aqua Worm Hole ” and “ Wavejumper ” to “ You Don’t Know ”.

Drexciya defined their own sound, taking the majority of their influence from electro and developing the genre into what became a unique representation of their ethos and the world they had created. Though they would never have pigeonholed themselves as such, or even claimed to be part of Detroit’s techno scene per se, Drexciya played an important role in the growth of the music, their mystique and insular approach creating a unique, aquatic strand of techno DNA.

Parallel to UR’s arrival, Jeff Mills was also producing his own solo material, which elevated him to almost God-like status for fans across Europe. His seminal anthem “ The Bells ” was one of many underground club hits he produced during a prolific period in the early nineties, and in 1991 he founded his own label Axis, and he also launched a sub-label named Purpose Maker, with productions mostly under his name but also using the alias Millsart. Cuts such as “ Black Is The Number ”, “ The Dancer ”, “ In The Bush ”, “ Step To Enchantment (Stringent) ” and many many more proving Mills to be a visionary without equal in the techno world.

In Belgium — a country with a history rich in music and dancing — a slowed down sound called new beat was exploding parallel to the development of techno. Discovered as a “happy accident” when “ Flesh ” by A Split Second was played at the wrong speed by DJ Dikke Ronny, new beat became the sound of a generation. Though it was short-lived, fizzling out in just a few years as imitators watered down the original sound, new beat opened the country up to electronic sounds, spawning Electronic Body Music (EBM) and ushering in a wave of techno innovation, led by acts like Joey Beltram.

By the time Beltram released his seminal techno track “Energy Flash” on R&S Records, the label was already seven years old. Launched in 1983 by Renaat Vandepapeliere* and Sabine Maes , the label (christened with the couple’s initials) embraced the new beat/EBM boom, and was perfectly positioned for the wave of gechno that would follow. There were all-time classics such as “ Plastic Dreams ” by Jaydee, “ Mentasm ” and the aforementioned “ Energy Flash ” by Joey Beltram, a glut of early Aphex Twin releases ( Selected Ambient Works 88 – 92 among them) and C.J. Bolland’s incendiary “Horsepower.” So influential was the label in the UK that they set up a London office, with the aid of drum & bass DJ Bryan Gee. In fact, D&B pioneers Fabio & Grooverider cite R&S as one of the key influences in the conception of jungle at legendary club night Rage.

Elsewhere in Belgium, Frank De Wulf rose to prominence as one of the country’s most prolific and revered electronic music artists. He broke through with his classic track “Acid Rock” before cementing his place in the history books with the ‘ B-Sides series on Music Man Records (another seminal Belgian label) with cuts like “ Magic Orchestra ”, “ The Tape ” “ Traffic ” and “ Moral Soundabuse ”. Music Man launched in 1989 and hit the rave wave with a series of releases that were immediately on the money — “ Just A Techno Groove ” by Sounds In Order (De Wulf and Gaetan Bouvie) and the acid/new beat hybrid “ Danger Zone ” by Fatal Attraction, for instance. Other Belgian tracks that epitomize the era include T99’s “ Anasthasia ” and the high-octane acid delirium that is “ Gravity ” by Trax-x.

In Holland, techno pioneers include Orlando Voorn, a former DMC champion who became one of the earliest Dutch artists to forge a direct link to Detroit and Gerd and Speedy J, two Rotterdam-based producers who would heavily influence the country’s techno scene. Of course, no mention of Holland is complete without Miss Djax (Saskia Slegers), who launched her label Djax-Up-Beats in 1989. The DIY hardcore techno platform fully embraced the underground attitude of rave culture, and Slegers often released music without mastering the recordings. Among its early successes were Terrace with “ 916 Buena Avenue ”, Edge Of Motion’s “ Set Up 707 ”, “ Give Your Body ” by Random XS and Miss Djax’s own “ Hardliner ”. Djax also formed a strong alliance with techno artists from Chicago and the labels Relief and Dance Mania.

*Renaat Vandepapeliere is currently being sued by a former employee for unlawful dismissal and racial discrimination.