Statue of an Ammonite King - History
Ammonite Deity Sculptures
Ammonite sculpture of a deity was found at Rabbat Ammon. 8th-7th centuries B.C. M. Dayan Collection (Israel Museum)
The Ammonites (sons of Ammon) according to the Bible originated because of an incestuous relationship between Lot (Abraham's nephew) and his younger daughter (Gen 19:38). Archaeology reveals that the Ammonites dwelt east of the Jordan River and settled there at the beginning of the 13th century B.C.
2 Chronicles 27:5 - He fought also with the king of the Ammonites, and prevailed against them. And the children of Ammon gave him the same year an hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of wheat, and ten thousand of barley. So much did the children of Ammon pay unto him, both the second year, and the third.
The Ammonites in the Smith's Bible Dictionary
(sons of renown, mountaineers), Am'monites, Children of Ammon, A people descended from Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his younger daughter. Ge 19:38 comp Psal 83:7,8. The Ammonites are frequently mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben-ammi's half-brother), and sometimes under the same name. Comp. Jud 10:6 2Ch 20:1 Zep 2:8 etc. The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them, De 2:20 they are said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border. Nu 21:24 De 2:37 3:16 (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed to them. Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of maranders in their incursions.) 1Sa 11:2 Am 1:13 and a very high degree of crafty cruelty to their toes. Jer 41:6,7 Jud 17:11,12 Moab was the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance, De 23:4 to the Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by a king, Jud 11:12 etc. 1Sa 12:12 2Sa 10:1 Jer 40:14 and by "princes." 2Sa 10:3 1Ch 19:3 The divinity of the tribe was Molech [MOLECH], and they were gross idolaters. Full Article
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) : People - Ancient Egypt
The Bible mentions a lot regarding Egypt:
Exodus 34:18 - The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
Genesis 46:7 - His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.
Jeremiah 2:18 - And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river?
Jeremiah 44:14 - So that none of the remnant of Judah, which are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that they should return into the land of Judah, to the which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return but such as shall escape.
Isaiah 19:22 - And the LORD shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal [it]: and they shall return [even] to the LORD, and he shall be intreated of them, and shall heal them.
2 Kings 17:4 - And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as [he had done] year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.
Exodus 23:15 - Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
Exodus 10:13 - And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all [that] night [and] when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
Exodus 9:25 - And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that [was] in the field, both man and beast and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
Jeremiah 44:30 - Thus saith the LORD Behold, I will give Pharaohhophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that sought his life.
Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God
Numbers 11:18 - And say thou unto the people, Sanctify yourselves against to morrow, and ye shall eat flesh: for ye have wept in the ears of the LORD, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat? for [it was] well with us in Egypt: therefore the LORD will give you flesh, and ye shall eat.
1 Kings 8:16 - Since the day that I brought forth my people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel to build an house, that my name might be therein but I chose David to be over my people Israel.
Joshua 5:6 - For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the people [that were] men of war, which came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD sware that he would not shew them the land, which the LORD sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey.
Jeremiah 43:11 - And when he cometh, he shall smite the land of Egypt, [and deliver] such [as are] for death to death and such [as are] for captivity to captivity and such [as are] for the sword to the sword.
Genesis 47:6 - The land of Egypt [is] before thee in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest [any] men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle.
Ezekiel 29:12 - And I will make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst of the countries [that are] desolate, and her cities among the cities [that are] laid waste shall be desolate forty years: and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries.
Exodus 12:42 - It [is] a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this [is] that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
Deuteronomy 16:1 - Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
Deuteronomy 17:16 - But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
Joshua 24:4 - And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau: and I gave unto Esau mount Seir, to possess it but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt.
Judges 6:8 - That the LORD sent a prophet unto the children of Israel, which said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I brought you up from Egypt, and brought you forth out of the house of bondage
Genesis 41:36 - And that food shall be for store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt that the land perish not through the famine.
Deuteronomy 13:5 - And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death because he hath spoken to turn [you] away from the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee.
Joshua 24:32 - And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for an hundred pieces of silver: and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph.
Joshua 5:5 - Now all the people that came out were circumcised: but all the people [that were] born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, [them] they had not circumcised.
Genesis 45:23 - And to his father he sent after this [manner] ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way.
Exodus 8:17 - And they did so for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
Ezekiel 30:6 - Thus saith the LORD They also that uphold Egypt shall fall and the pride of her power shall come down: from the tower of Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith the Lord GOD.
2 Chronicles 6:5 - Since the day that I brought forth my people out of the land of Egypt I chose no city among all the tribes of Israel to build an house in, that my name might be there neither chose I any man to be a ruler over my people Israel:
A voice says, "Cry out." And I said, "What shall I cry?"
"All men are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field." Isa. 40:6
Archaeology provides one of the many sober reminders that we are not eternal. As we see history's graveyard, it's like viewing the tombstone of an empire. "Here lies the once proud Assyrian Empire who ruled many and feared none"
As you watch the video provided by a thoughtful soldier in Iraq taking a moment to tour the ruins of Nineveh, the once mighty capital of the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent, try to imagine life there and the surrounding countryside. How many people saw the powerful Nineveh gates as a part of their daily scenery? The gates were just always there, part of the skyline, taken for granted, testifying to the King's authority and glory.
What was it like for the rulers? They enjoyed that eternal feeling that we all have while we are young and strong. Living in grandeur and exercising power over a kingdom of peoples they enjoyed all that life could provide.
King Sennacherib would have moved through these gates on his way to confront the humble nation of Judah and King Hezekiah who Sennacherib said he had trapped in Jerusalem like a "caged bird". Little did he know that he alone would be confronted by God Himself!
If he could have experienced a terrifying dream of a Humvee with soldiers carrying M-16's driving upon the ruins of his empire, contemplating the lessons of their fallen empire, he might have gained that perspective that his life was finite, his empire would one day fall, and his only hope was in humbly seeking a relationship with the God of heaven. The same lesson that each of us today has to learn. As happened to every empire uncovered by the spade, will also happen to each of us. All that is left in the end is our relationship with God and what we have wrought for His kingdom. The only thing we can take beyond the grave are the others we have served by feeding them the Word of God.
I hated all the things I had toiled for under the sun,
because I must leave them to the one who comes after me. Ecc. 2:18
&ldquoThe firstborn bore a son and called his name Moab. He is the father of the Moabites to this day. The younger also bore a son and called his name Ben-ammi. He is the father of the Ammonites to this day&rdquo (Gen. 19:37&ndash38).
Moses concludes the account of Sodom and Gomorrah&rsquos destruction in today&rsquos passage, telling us that Lot fathered the Moabites and the Ammonites by his daughters (Gen. 19:37&ndash38). Before we consider the history of these two nations, let us look at an important lesson the original readers of Genesis were to learn from Sodom&rsquos end.
While the book of Genesis is God&rsquos written word to us, it was first given to the nation of Israel. This audience was to read Genesis and understand it was the Lord&rsquos will for them to possess the land of Canaan. Abraham&rsquos return to this area from Egypt (12:10&ndash13:1) and the Lord&rsquos promises to give Canaan to the patriarch&rsquos legitimate heirs (12:1&ndash9 15:18&ndash21 17:1&ndash8) are some of the proofs this land rightfully belonged to faithful Israelites.
Yet the covenant community would later be tempted to embrace the same violence, idolatry, and immorality practiced by the inhabitants of Canaan (Judg. 2:1&ndash5 1 Kings 12:25&ndash33). Therefore, Sodom&rsquos destruction also warned that Israel (indeed, any nation) could lose everything if it fell into the same sins. More often than not, regrettably, the ancient Israelites did not heed this warning (Isa. 3:8&ndash9).
God also inspired Moses to explain how the Israelites were related to the other peoples living in the area. The Moabites who lived just east of the Dead Sea and the Ammonites who occupied the countryside north of Moab were both tribes related by blood to Abraham as they descend from his nephew (Gen. 19:37&ndash38). But given the incestuous origins of Moab and Ammon, we are not surprised that contact with these peoples often brought much trouble for Abraham&rsquos children as these peoples sinned like their parents. Moab led Israel into Baal worship on its way into Canaan (Num. 25:1&ndash3). Both the Ammonites and the Moabites hired Balaam to curse Israel as it journeyed toward the Promised Land and were thus forbidden to enter the Lord&rsquos assembly (Deut. 23:3&ndash4).
However, the curse on these peoples is due to lack of faith, not ethnicity. Those Ammonites or Moabites who trusted in Yahweh could be incorporated into the Israel of God (Ruth 1&ndash4).
Statue of an Ammonite King - History
Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites. —The name Milcom (like the Malcham of Jeremiah 49:1 Jeremiah 49:3) is probably only a variety of the well-known Molech , which is actually used for it in 1Kings 11:7. The name “Molech” (though here connected expressly with the Ammonite idolatry) is a general title, signifying only “king” (as Baal signifies “lord”), and might be applied to the supreme god of any idolatrous system. Thus the worship of “Molech,” with its horrible sacrifice of children “passing through the fire,” is forbidden in Leviticus 18:21 Leviticus 20:2, evidently as prevailing among the Canaanite races (comp. Psalm 106:37-38). Again, we know historically that similar sacrifice of children, by the same horrible rite, was practised by the Carthaginians in times of great national calamity—the god being in that case identified with Saturn, the star of malign influence. By comparison of Jeremiah 7:31 Jeremiah 19:5-6, it is very evident that this human sacrifice to Molech is also called “a burnt-offering to Baal” and if Molech was the “fire-god,” and Baal the “sun-god,” the two deities might easily be regarded as cognate, if not identical. It is notable that, in this place, while Ashtoreth is mentioned, there is no reference to any worship of the Phœnician Baal as such possibly the Ammonite Molech-worship may have occupied its place. In any case, as the worship of Ashtoreth was stained with impurity, so the Molech-worship was marked by the other foul pollution of the sacrifice of human blood.
Chemosh, the abomination of the Moabites. —The name Chemosh probably means “the Conqueror,” or “Subjugator,” and indicates a god of battles. He is again and again described as the god of the Moabites who are called “the people of Chemosh” (see Numbers 21:29 Jeremiah 48:7 Jeremiah 48:13 Jeremiah 48:46) and the Moabite Stone speaks of the slain in war as an offering to Chemosh, and even refers to a deity, “Ashtar-Chemosh,” which looks like a conjunction of Chemosh, like Baal, with Ashtoreth. In Judges 11:24, Jephthah refers to Chemosh as the god of the Ammonite king, an expression which may indicate a temporary supremacy of Moab over Ammon at that time, through which the name “Chemosh” superseded the name “Milcom” as descriptive of the Supreme Power. In the history, moreover, of the Moabite war against Jehoram (2Kings 3:26-27) it seems that to Chemosh, as to Molech, human sacrifice was offered.
Probably, in actual practice the various worships of the Tyrians and Canaanites, the Ammonites and the Moabites might run into each other. Unlike the awful and exclusive reverence to the Lord Jehovah, the devotion of polytheistic systems readily welcomes strange gods into its Pantheon. Polytheism is also apt to pass into what has been called “Henotheism,” in which, of many gods each is for the moment worshipped, as if he stood alone, and concentrated in himself the whole attributes of deity. The generality and similarity of meaning in the names, Baal (“lord”), Molech (“king”), and Chemosh (“conqueror”), seem to point in this direction. Still, these worships are described as taking, in Jerusalem, distinct forms and habitations, which continued till the days of Josiah (2Kings 23:13), no doubt disused and condemned in days of religious faithfulness, such as those of Jehoshapliat and Hezekiah, but revived, and associated with newer idolatries, in days of apostasy.
1 Kings 11:5-7 . Solomon went after Ashtoreth — Called also Astarte. See on Jdg 2:13. And after Milcom — The same, it is thought, with Molech, who is here called an abomination, because highly detested by God. Solomon built a high place for Chemosh — That is, an altar upon a high place, as the manner of the heathen was. Concerning Chemosh, see Numbers 21:29. In the hill that is before Jerusalem — In the mount of Olives, which was nigh to Jerusalem, as if to confront the temple. From this act this hill was called the mount of corruption, 2 Kings 23:13. O sad effects of riches and prosperity on mankind! How insolent do they make them, and how forgetful of God! Wisely did Agar pray, Give me not riches, lest I be full and say, Who is the Lord?
For Ashtoreth, or Astarte, the goddess of the Zidonians, see Exodus 34:13, note Deuteronomy 16:21, note. On the tomb of a Phoenician king, discovered in 1855, on the site of Sidon, mention is made of a temple of Astarte there, which the monarch built or restored and his mother is said to have been a priestess of the goddess.
Milcom or Molech 1 Kings 11:7 are variants of the term ordinarily used for "king" among the Semitic races of Western Asia, which appears in melkarth (Phoenic.), Abimelech (Hebrew), Andrammelek (Assyrian), Abd-ul-malik (Arabic), etc. On the character and worship of Molech, see Leviticus 20:2-5 note.
and Chemosh—He built altars for these three but, although he is described (1Ki 11:8) as doing the same for "all his strange wives," there is no evidence that they had idols distinct from these and there is no trace whatever of Egyptian idolatry.
Solomon went after Ashtoreth, in manner explained in the former verse. Milcom , called also Molech of which see Leviticus 18:21 2 Kings 23:10 .
and after Milcom the abomination of the Amnonites the same with Molech, 1 Kings 11:7. See Gill on Leviticus 18:21. See Gill on Amos 1:13. After this he was drawn by his Ammonitish wife, or wives, 1 Kings 11:1, though the Jewish writers think he did not worship these idols, but suffered his wives to do it, and connived at it, which was his sin so Ben Gersom and Abarbinel.
(i) Apud Tatian. contr. Graecos, p. 171. (k) Stromat. l. 1. p. 325. (l) In voce (m) De Dea Syria.
(d) Who was also called Molech in 1Ki 11:7. See also 2Ki 23:10.
5 . Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians ] Ashtoreth was the chief female divinity of the Phœnicians, as Baal was their chief male deity. As Baal has been identified with the sun, so Ashtoreth has by some been thought to be the moon. Recent investigations have however connected the name of Ashtoreth with the planet Venus, and by some it is thought that the name was applied in some parts of the Phœnician settlements to Venus, in others to the moon. Ashtoreth is identified with the Greek Ἀστάρτη , and the name of an ancient city (Genesis 14:5) Ashteroth-Karnaim , i.e. Ashteroth of the two horns, seems to point to the crescent moon. This is accepted by Milton ( Par. L . I. 438).
‘Ashtoreth, whom the Phœnicians called
Astartè, queen of heaven, with crescent horns
To whose bright image, nightly by the moon
Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs.’
The worship of Ashtoreth was very widespread, as might be expected from the wide commercial relations, and distant colonies, of the Phœnicians. Why Ashtoreth is here named ‘goddess’ while the other deities are called ‘abominations’ may be due to the greater intercourse between Sidon and the Holy Land than existed with other countries. The Phœnician workmen at the Temple had perhaps caused the Israelites to become more accustomed to the name and worship of Ashtoreth.
Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites ] This is the same divinity who is called below (1 Kings 11:7) Molech, and in Zephaniah 1:5 Malcham. Molech was a fire god, and was worshipped with human sacrifices. The root of the word is the same as that of the Hebrew word for ‘king.’ Hence some think ‘their king’ in 2 Samuel 12:30 means Molech, the god of the Ammonites. There are numerous allusions in the Old Test. to the worship of this god, the phrase most common being ‘to make their children to pass through the fire to Molech.’ See 2 Kings 23:10 2 Kings 23:13. Some have explained this not as actual burning of the children to death, but as a passing of them between two fires for an ordeal of purification. But in 2 Chronicles 28:3 it is said of Ahaz, ‘He burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in the fire, after the abominations of the nations whom Jehovah had driven out.’ And the actual burning of the children thus offered is alluded to very plainly in Jeremiah 7:31, ‘They have built the high places of Tophet, … to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire.’ The tradition is that the statue of Molech was of brass and the hands so arranged that the victim slipped from them into a fire which burnt underneath. It may be because there were no such sacrifices offered to Ashtoreth, that she is not spoken of as ‘an abomination.’
In the ancient world, dreams were thought to be visions of future events. King Nebuchadnezzar's dreams were troubling him and he sought resolution and interpretation of his visions from the wise men of Babylon. However, the king would not reveal his dreams to them and said if they truly were supernatural men they would know his dream and its interpretation. God then discloses his dream to Daniel, a vision of a giant statue made of gold, silver, bronze, iron, and clay. Then, in the dream, "a stone was cut out by no human hand" and struck the statue breaking it into pieces as the wind carried them away leaving no traces behind. Daniel explained to the king that the statue represented four successive kingdoms based upon power and wealth, beginning with Babylon, while the stone and mountain signified a kingdom established by God that would never be destroyed nor given to other people.
Photo credit: ©GettyImages/Romolo Tavani
Ammonites of the Old Testament
The Ammonites are a group consisting of people originating from Abraham’s family. Aside from that, they are also known as the troublemakers to the Israelites based on the Old Testament. The Ammonites as a people are found on the Biblical Timeline beginning around 1500 BC.
Ammonites were a diverse group of individuals who lived in the Dead Sea’s far north eastern part. During the Biblical era, the Ammonites’ government was known as the Ammonites Kingdom. The said kingdom simply settled in the central part of Rabbah which was a city-state situated by the Jabbok River’s headwaters. Nowadays, Rabbah is located in Jordanian city Amman.
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Rise of the Ammonites and the Moabites
According to the bible, the beginning of the Ammonite people goes a long way back to incestuous events that occurred between Lot together with his two daughters for Gomorrah and Sodom’s destruction. Eventually, the two daughters bore children whom were the ancestors of the strong unions Ammonites and Moabites. The truth about Lot is that he had four daughters. Two were said to have been killed in Sodom. However, the Bible indicates that one of them actually lived and got married to the Horite Chief Seir. A shocking revelation about the two unmarried daughters is that they actually had sexual affairs with their own father which led them to pregnancy.
Months later, the first daughter gave birth to a boy named Moab who is believed to be the father all Moabites. On the other hand, the other daughter who was younger gave birth to a boy as well which she named Ben-Ammi, the father of all Ammonites who is actually in the 1900 BC Biblical Timeline. Due to this fact, the Ammonites and the Moabites are actually the children of Lot.
Ammonites against the Israelites
One of the biggest similarities of the Moabites and the Ammonites is that they are against the Israelites. During the time of the Exodus, Israelites were highly forbidden by Ammonites on going through the territories of Ammon. According to a book called the Book of Judges, Ammonites were in great company of Eglon who is known as the king of all Moabites fighting against Israel. Attacks committed by Ammonites against the Israelite communities located in the eastern part of Jordan were actually the reason behind the alliance of tribes that were under Saul.
Appearance and behavior
Based on the fossil record, ammonites came in a wide range of sizes and shapes, from smaller than an inch to as large as nine feet wide. Some ammonites had long, straight shells, while others had helix-shaped shells. Most species, however, had coiled shells lined with progressively larger chambers separated by thin walls called septa.
The animals constantly grew new shell material as they aged, but the their bodies always remained in the outer chamber. The walls that separated each chamber helped protect the shell from being crushed. They were connected to the shell by intricate lines known as sutures—the complexity of which varied tremendously throughout this animal’s evolution.
The many chambers of their shells likely helped these cephalopods glide through the planet’s warm, shallow seas. A thin, tubelike structure called a siphuncle pumped air through the interior chambers of the shell, which scientists believe helped provide buoyancy and move ammonites through the water. It’s unclear whether ammonites were very efficient swimmers, though.
Scientists believed that ammonites, like modern cephalopods, had soft body tissue with tentacles attached to their heads for catching prey. Fossil evidence indicates they had sharp, beaklike jaws to snare prey such as plankton, crustaceans, and other ammonites. They were also preyed on by larger reptiles and fish.
Alveda King tells protesters: 'If you find yourself going into a rage over a statue, step back'
Reaction from Alveda King, Fox News contributor and niece of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Fox News contributor Alveda King, a niece of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., told "Your World" Monday that statues of historic figures can be problematic because of the potential for them to be seen as "idols."
"I don't believe that we should fight over the statues," she told host Neil Cavuto. "I do feel like statues can be idols. Some people idolize Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Some people admire Martin Luther King Jr. Some people hate Martin Luther King Jr."
King told host Neil Cavuto that she agreed with attorney Benjamin Crump, who told Cavuto Saturday that violently tearing down statues is not the most advisable way to effect change.
"The gentleman (Crump) that you just had on, [saying] that, 'Why don't we leave them up and find out why they were there, what we have learned from that?'" she said. "Perhaps you can even place a plaque."
King added that statues of Confederate military leaders and others that have been vandalized, torn down or are being taken down, came from a time when Americans "did not understand that we are one human race."
She recalled that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and his brother Alfred Daniel Williams King (Alveda's father) paid little mind to the Confederate statuary that dotted Atlanta in her youth.
"They actually preached the Bible along with their dad. They learned to live together as brothers and sisters and not perish together as fools," she said."The more we communicated and began to see each other as human beings, my granddaddy [Martin Luther King Sr.] coined the phrase 'Atlanta is a city too busy to hate.' We decided not to hate and not to fight."
She pointed to the statue of former President Theodore Roosevelt in front of the American Museum of Natural History in New York -- which, after receiving the green light from the city, will be torn down.
"I believe it is very important even with the Teddy Roosevelt statue . [to be] saying, we need to see this whole issue. These are all Americans. So that is really what they would encourage us to do and encourage us to pray, communicate, love each other," she said. "If you find yourself going into a rage over a statue, step back and reexamine the human heart and what we can do together to discuss and resolve this without destruction and with violence."
The statue of Roosevelt, who also served as governor of New York, has been considered insensitive because it also depicts a Native American and a black man standing beside the famously stoic Republican's horse.
Actor Ben Stiller, who starred in the famed "Night at The Museum" film series, suggested on Twitter that a statue of Robin Williams -- who played a horse-riding Roosevelt in the series -- replace the real thing.
After a fire destroyed Wilmington, Delaware’s Diamond State Brewery in 1881, proprietor Joseph Stoeckle had a larger brick facility constructed the following year at the same location on Fifth and Adams streets. Stoeckle elected to adorn his new brewery with a large statue of Gambrinus, the legendary European king of beer. The statue was installed on Saturday, July 8, 1882.
Joseph Stoeckle Brewing Co. lithoprint, c. 1915
The 11 ½-foot zinc statue was purchased from the M.(ichael) Gebelt & Brothers Company of the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York, as indicated on the plaque at statue’s right base. Gambrinus was cast from a mold owned by the J.W. Fiske & Company, a prominent Manhattan manufacturer of iron and zinc statuary. Fiske typically outsourced their foundry work to local firms. In fact, identical examples of the Fiske Gambrinus statue were made not only by Gebelt but at least two other Williamsburg foundries – Joseph A. Stoll and M.J. Seelig & Company. Although Fiske brought suit against Gebelt in 1876 for duplicating some of their statue designs without authorization, it did not stop the two companies from doing future business together.
The Fiske Gambrinus statue designs were originally sold in two sizes: a 3 ½-foot version (Fiske catalogue No. 401) and a larger, 10-foot, 3-inch model (No. 402). The statues could be purchased with either a single primer coat of paint or, for an additional charge, polychromatic paint. The Stoeckle statue was the No. 402 version, which is believed to have been among the largest zinc trade statues made in America during the 19 th century.
Gambrinus, 1947 (courtesy DE Historical Society)
Stoeckle’s colorful Gambrinus statue remained in its alcove atop the Diamond State Brewery for more than 80 years, through the Prohibition era and two World Wars. Perched on what was then one of Wilmington’s tallest structures in one of the city’s highest points, the beloved king toasted the thirsty workers in ship and rail yards along the Christina River and beckoned them to partake when the workday ended.
Diamond State Brewery Co. label, 1942
The Diamond State Brewery, Inc., successors to the Joseph Stoeckle Brewing Co. after Prohibition, went bankrupt in 1955 and closed permanently. In the ensuing years, the complex fell into disrepair and was eventually purchased by Cohen Brothers Furniture, who used part of it as a storage warehouse. Time took its toll on Gambrinus as well. In May 1956, the statue’s right arm and tankard gave way, fell 33 feet to the sidewalk, and shattered.
Unfortunately, the worst was yet to come for the king and his brewery. The brewery stood directly in the path of the planned Adams-Jackson Freeway (i.e. – Interstate 95) through Wilmington and was set to be demolished in late 1962.
With arm & tankard missing, May 1956 (Wilmington Morning News)
Prior to demolition, on September 26, 1962, the Cohens had Gambrinus removed from the brewery and temporarily placed in the window of his furniture store at 511 Madison Street, a couple of blocks from the brewery site. The Cohens initially discussed plans to have the statue restored and donated to a local museum, but those plans never came to fruition. Instead, they sold the statue to Wilmington restaurateur Francis Corridori in 1963.
The king being removed from the brewery (Wilmington Evening Journal, 9/26/62)
Corridori had Gambrinus repaired, adding a new extended right arm and goblet, and placed the statue in front of his King’s Inn Restaurant at 2020 Naamans Road in suburban Wilmington. The King’s Inn became The Inn in 1972, but the statue remained to toast passerbys until the business closed in 1974.
Gambrinus in front of the Kings Inn, circa 1968 (courtesy Xavier Teixido)
Ownership of the statue passed to Corridori’s son, Tom, who stored it at an Airport Road roofing company warehouse near Newport for several years until that business was sold. In July 1978, the statue was moved to temporary storage at a salvage yard down the road. A Pennsylvania antique dealer offered to purchase the statue in August 1978. While being moved at the salvage yard, the statue was inadvertently dropped and shattered into dozens of pieces.
Gambrinus at Airport Rd. junkyard, July 1978 (Wilmington News Journal)
Some point thereafter, historian and curator Rob Howard of Wilmington came into possession of the statue. Howard intended to restore Gambrinus, but never got around to doing it before his death in 2012. Howard’s estate granted ownership of the statue to Delaware beer historian John Medkeff in July 2014.
Condition of the statue, July 2014
The remaining pieces of the Gambrinus statue are currently in safe storage awaiting restoration. Once funds are raised and work is completed, the statue will be donated to the Delaware History Museum in Wilmington for presentation and long-term preservation. Not coincidentally, the museum is located exactly nine blocks to the east of King Gambrinus’ former location at the Diamond State Brewery.
King Gambrinus is the most significant artifact remaining from Wilmington’s Golden Age of Brewing. The statue serves as an apt symbol of the rebirth of the brewing industry in the First State as a key cultural, economic, and social driver.
At the statue’s baseList of site sources >>>