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Key DE-348 - History

Key DE-348 - History

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Eugene Morland Key, born Conroe, Tex., 5 October 1916 enlisted as a Private in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve 17 January 1941. Commissioned Second Lieutenant 29 May, he served at San Diego and Washington, D.C., before joining the 1st Marine Raider Battalion 19 March 1942. Promoted to First Lieutenant 4 June, he participated in the amphibious invasion of Tulagi Island, Solomons, 7 August. While leading the assault against a heavily defended, enemy position, Leiutenant Key was hit by hostile sniper fire. Although mortally wounded, he courageously struggled forward and threw hand grenades into the Japanese position, thus destroying the enemy resistance and allowing his platoon to advance without further loss. For his "indomitable fighting spirit, outstanding skill, and great personal valor" First Lieutenant Key was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.

(DE-348: dp. 1,350; 1. 306'; b. 36'8"; dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.; cpl. 186; a. 2 5", 4 40mm., 10 20mm., 3 21" tt., 8 dcp.; 1 dcp. (h.h.), 2 dct.; cl. John 0. Butler)

Key (DE-348) was launched 12 February 1944 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex., sponsored by Mrs. Ira F. Key, mother of Lt. Key; and commissioned 5 June 1944, Lt. Comdr. F. D. Buckley in command.

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Key operated out of Norfolk, training crews for destroyer escorts and patrolling the North Atlantic in quest of submarines. Clearing Hampton Roads 20 September, she escorted a convoy to Naples, Italy, then returned to New York 24 October. As a unit of CortDiv 76, she sailed from New York 10 November for duty with the 7th Fleet in the Southwest Pacific.

Key arrived Hollandia, New Guinea, 27 December, and between 1 January 1945 and 6 February she made five escort runs from Hollandia to Leyte Gulf. On 9 February she began antisubmarine patrols east of Leyete Gulf; then she steamed to Mangarin Bay, Mindoro, 19 February for similar duty in the South China Sea. Returning to Leyte 14 March, the versatile destroyer escort operated out of Leyte Gulf and Polloc, Mindanao, screening ships en route to Lingayen Gulf, Luzon; Zamboanga, Mindanao; Jolo, Sulu Archipelago; and Legaspi and Manila, Luzon. After escorting a convoy of LSM's and LCI's to Davao Gulf 15 May, Key bombarded and destroyed an important Japanese PT base at Piso Point before returning to Polloc the 17th.

After additional escort runs to Davao Gulf, Leyte Gulf, and Legaspi, Luzon, Key departed Manila Bay 11 June for duty in the Dutch East Indies. Arriving Morotai Island 14 June, she screened Tawitawi-bound LCI's 23-26 June before escorting a convoy the 28th to a rendezvous the following day with the amphibious force en route to the assault at Balikpapan, Borneo. While at Balikpapan 7 July, Key rescued a survivor from a LCM sunk by a mine in the harbor. She patrolled for enemy submarines until 22 July when she sailed via Morotai for Leyte Gulf, arriving 4 August.

Operating out of Leyte after the end of hostilities, Key steamed on antisubmarine patrols east of Leyte 22 to 31 August and escorted a convoy to Ulithi, Western Carolines before sailing to Manila 8 September. Between 18 September and 23 November she made two escort runs from Manila Bay to Okinawa to support American Occupation operations in Japan. Clearing Manila Bay 25 November, she embarked homebound veterans 27 November at Guinan, Samar and departed the next day for the United States. Arriving San Pedro, Calif., 17 December, she decommissioned 9 July 1946 at Terminal Island and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet. At present she is berthed at Bremerton, Wash.

Key received one battle star for World War II service.

Marine Corps Career [ edit | edit source ]

Key enlisted as a Private in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves January 17, 1941. Commissioned Second Lieutenant May 29, he served at San Diego, California, and Washington, D.C., before joining the 1st Marine Raider Battalion March 19, 1942. Promoted to First Lieutenant June 4, he participated in the amphibious invasion of Tulagi Island, Solomons, August 7,. While leading the assault against a heavily defended, enemy position, Lieutenant Key was hit by hostile sniper fire. Although mortally wounded, he courageously struggled forward and threw hand grenades into the Japanese position, thus destroying the enemy resistance and allowing his platoon to advance without further loss.

Saturday, November 7, 2015

Mid-Century Modernism Peer Review

Riann's post included a lot of great examples of the furniture that came from this period. I also liked the video on Eero Saarinen, which had a lot of interesting photos of his work.

Scott also included a great video on the Eames Lounge Chair that shows its complex manufacturing process. I also thought he did a great job explaining the key characteristics of the Mid-Century Modernism style.

Mid-Century Modernism


Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari (pronounced [skudeˈriːa] ) literally means "Ferrari Stable" and is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought, [ citation needed ] prepared, and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: [1] the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department therefore the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded. [1]

In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. [1] A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari. [1] The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including works for road car production.

The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine [1] Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari. [18]

The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.

In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.A. (Società Esercizio Fabbriche Automobili e Corse). [19]

Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.

In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death later that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p.A. [19] From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made (minus the 400th which was donated to the Vatican for charity) had a price tag of $650,000 apiece (equivalent to £400,900).

On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars worth over $162 million (£99.95 million) attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record. [20]

Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. [21] In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. [22]

On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari. The aim was to turn Ferrari into an independent brand, 10% of whose stake would be sold in an IPO in 2015. [23] Ferrari officially priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. [24]

On 10 December 2020, CEO Louis Camilleri announced that he will step down as CEO and chairman John Elkann will step in to the Interim CEO role until a permanent successor is selected. [25]

Presidents Edit

  • Nicola Tufarelli (1978–1980)
  • Giovanni Sguazzini (1980–1984) (1984–1988)
  • Pietro Fusaro (1988–1991) (1991–2014) (2014–2018) (2018–2020) (2020–) [26]

Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one-make race series.

1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.

Scuderia Ferrari Edit

Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.

Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014 [update] , the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles, 16 World Constructors Championship titles, 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the F2004, with a further 3 set by the F2003-GA, F2008 and F10.

At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.

In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.

In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.

When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967. Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.

During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.

Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.

Race cars for other teams Edit

Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team.

In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car. [28]

Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008–09 season. [29] The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.

Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years. This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to compete against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 (E89) has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one-make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal and is therefore only used for track events.

The first vehicle made with the Ferrari name was the 125 S. Only two of this small two-seat sports/racing V12 car were made. In 1949, the 166 Inter was introduced marking the company's significant move into the grand touring road car market. The first 166 Inter was a four-seat (2+2) berlinetta coupe with body work designed by Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera. Road cars quickly became the bulk of Ferrari sales.

The early Ferrari cars typically featured bodywork designed and customised by independent coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Scaglietti, Zagato, Vignale and Bertone.

The original road cars were typically two-seat front-engined V12s. This platform served Ferrari very well through the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968 the Dino was introduced as the first two-seat rear mid-engined Ferrari. The Dino was produced primarily with a V6 engine, however, a V8 model was also developed. This rear mid-engine layout would go on to be used in many Ferraris of the 1980s, 1990s and to the present day. Current road cars typically use V8 or V12 engines, with V8 models making up well over half of the marque's total production. Historically, Ferrari has also produced flat 12 engines.

For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB. [ citation needed ]

Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa (also mid-engined 12 cylinders) remains one of the most popular and famous Ferrari road cars of all time.

The company has also produced several front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the recent V12 model Lusso and V8 models Roma, Portofino and Lusso T. The California is credited with initiating the popular current model line of V8 front-engined 2+2 grand touring performance sports cars. [ citation needed ]

Starting in the early 2010s with the LaFerrari, the focus was shifted away from the use of independent coach builders to what is now the standard, Ferrari relying on in-house design from the Centro Stile Ferrari for the design of all its road cars.

Current models Edit

Customization Edit

In the 1950s and 1960s, clients often personalized their vehicles as they came straight from the factory. [30] This philosophy added to the mystique of the brand. Every Ferrari that comes out of Maranello is built to an individual customer's specification. In this sense, each vehicle is a unique result of a specific client's desire.

Ferrari formalized this concept with its earlier Carrozzeria Scaglietti programme. The options offered here were more typical such as racing seats, rearview cameras, and other special trim. In late 2011, Ferrari announced a significant update of this philosophy. The Tailor Made programme allows clients to work with designers in Maranello to make decisions at every step of the process. Through this program almost any trim, any exterior color or any interior material is possible. The program carries on the original tradition and emphasizes the idea of each car being unique. [30]

Supercars Edit

The 1984 288 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars. This pedigree extends through the Enzo Ferrari to the LaFerrari. In February 2019, at the 89th Geneva International Motor Show, Ferrari revealed its latest mid-engine V8 supercar, the F8 Tributo. [31]

Ferrari SF90 Stradale is the first-ever Ferrari to feature PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) architecture which sees the internal combustion engine integrated with three electric motors, two of which are independent and located on the front axle, with the third at the rear between the engine and the gearbox. [32]

Concept cars and specials Edit

Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Mythos have shown styling elements that were later incorporated into production models.

The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Millechili.

A number of one-off special versions of Ferrari road cars have also been produced, commissioned to coachbuilders by wealthy owners. Recent examples include the P4/5 [33] and the 412 Kappa.

Ferrari Special Projects Edit

The Special Projects programme was launched in the late 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, enabling customers to own bespoke bodied one-offs based on modern Ferrari road cars. [34] Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal. [34]

The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive, the second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector. [34] The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public:

Name Picture Year Based on Commissioned by Notes
SP1 2008 F430 [35] Junichiro Hiramatsu [35] Design by Leonardo Fioravanti. [35]
P540 Superfast Aperta 2009 599 GTB [36] Edward Walson [36] Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis. [34] [36]
Superamerica 45 2011 599 GTB [37] Peter Kalikow [37] Rotating targa top [37] design by Pininfarina
SP12 EC 2012 458 Italia [38] Eric Clapton [38] Designed by Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, in homage to the 512 BB. [38]
SP30 2013 [39] 599 GTO [39] Cheerag Arya [39]
SP FFX 2014 FF [40] Shin Okamoto [40] Design by Pininfarina [40]
Ferrari F12 TRS 2014 F12berlinetta [41] Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. Design by Ferrari Styling Centre. [41]
Ferrari SP America 2014 F12berlinetta Danny Wegman [42]
Ferrari 458 MM Speciale 2016 458 Speciale [43] Design by Ferrari Styling Centre. [43]
SP275 RW Competizione 2016 F12tdf Rick Workman [44] Inspired by the 1964 275 GTB/C Speciale. Design by Pininfarina in collaboration with Ferrari Styling Centre. [45]
Ferrari J50 2017 488 Spider Design by Ferrari Design Center team in Maranello directed by Flavio Manzoni. [46]
SP38 2018 488 GTB Inspired by the F40 and 308. [47]
Ferrari SP3JC 2018 F12tdf John Collins [48] Designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre. Two matching cars ordered, one in LHD, the other in RHD with different liveries. [49] Took 3.5 years to complete. Presented in 2018.
P80/C 2019 488 GT3 One-off track-only car inspired by the 330 P3, 330 P4 and the Dino 206 S.
Ferrari Omologata 2020 Ferrari 812 Superfast Design by Ferrari Design Center team in Maranello directed by Flavio Manzoni [50]

Bio-fuel and hybrid cars Edit

An F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599. Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP. [51] Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production.

Naming conventions Edit

From the beginning, the Ferrari naming convention consisted of a three-digit unitary displacement of an engine cylinder with an additional suffix representing the purpose of a vehicle. Therefore, Ferrari 125 S had 1.5 L (1496.77 cc) V12 engine with a unitary displacement of 124.73 cc whilst S-suffix represented Sport. Other race cars also received names invoking particular races like Ferrari 166 MM for Mille Miglia. With the introduction of road-going models, the suffix Inter was added, inspired by the Scuderia Inter racing team of Igor Troubetzkoy. Popular at that time 166-series had 2.0 L (1995.02 cc) engines with 166.25 cc of unitary displacement and a very diverse 250-series had 3.0 L (2953.21 cc) of total displacement and 246.10 cc of unitary. Later series of road cars were renamed Europa and top of the line series: America and Superamerica.

Until the early 1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement and a number of cylinders:

    models used the total displacement (in decilitres) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third. Thus, the 206 was a 2.0 L V6 powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355, the last digit refers to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360 Modena, the digits for V8 models (which now carried a name as well as a number) refer only to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this name carried on to the F430 the F430's replacement, the 458 Italia, uses the same naming as the 206 and 348. The 488 uses the system formerly used by the V12 cars. models used the displacement (in cubic centimetres) of one cylinder. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4,390 cc (268 cu in) V12. However, some newer V12-engined Ferraris, such as the 599, have three-number designations that refer only to total engine displacement or boxer-style designations such as the [nominally] six-litre, V12 612. models used the displacement in litres for the first digit and the number of cylinders for the next two digits. Therefore, the BB 512 was five-litre flat 12 (a Berlinetta Boxer, in this case). However, the original Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB, which was named in a similar manner to the V12 models.
  • Flagship models (aka "halo cars") use the letter F followed by the anniversary in years, such as the F40 and F50. The Enzo skipped this rule, although the F60 name was applied to a Ferrari Formula One car and is sometimes attached to the Enzo.
  • Some models, such as the 1980 Mondial and 1984 Testarossa did not follow a three-number naming scheme.

Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:

  • M ("Modificata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512 M and 575 M Maranello).
  • GTB ("Gran Turismo Berlinetta") models are closed Berlinettas, or coupés.
  • GTS ("Gran Turismo Scoperta") this suffix can be seen in older spiders, or convertibles (see 365 GTS/4). Now the convertible models use the suffix "Spider" (spelt "i") (see F355 Spider, and 360 Spider). In more recent models, this suffix is used for targa top models (see Dino 246 GTS, and F355 GTS), which is an absolutely correct use of the suffix since "scoperta" means "uncovered". An increasing number of people tend to refer to GTS as "Gran Turismo Spyder", which creates the false assumption that Ferrari does not know the difference between "spyder" and "targa". The 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently, is an exception.
  • GTO ("Gran Turismo Omologata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor. It designates a model that has been designed and improved for racetrack use while still being street legal. Only three models bear those three letters: the 250 GTO of 1962, the 288 GTO of 1984, and the 599 GTO of 2010.

This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4. [52] Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 run by NART (who raced Ferraris in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911. [53]

The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers—for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458).

Chevrolet 348 V8 Engine

The Chevy 348 V8 engine was first introduced in 1958 and stayed in production up through 1961 for passenger cars and light Chevy trucks. It was commonly referred to as the “RAT” engine because the size of the block was bigger than the “MOUSE” Chevy 283 as it was also nicknamed.

GM’s soul purpose in creating the Chevy 348 was to produce a powerful engine. Aftermarket manufacturers quickly jumped on board and produced multiple performance parts for the 348 such as cams, popup pistons and headers. GM’s goal was successful and the 348 became one of the most dominating engines to use for drag racing in the late 50s and early 60s.

From 1962 to 1964 GM still manufactured the 348 but it was only used in large trucks built by Chevrolet. At the time, this engine was considered to be the top performing motor used by Chevrolet with horsepower ratings reaching 350 bhp by 1961. However once the Chevy 409 was introduced in 1961, the 348 was no longer able to compete with the performance of this new GM powerhouse.


Quitstan, 1245 Wystan, Quystan, 1278 Whystan, Whytstan, Whyghtstan, 1292 Quistan, 1346 Whistan usual, but Whiston occurs as early as 1355.

This township has an area of 1,782½ acres. (fn. 1) It occupies irregular ground south of Prescot, in the very prosaic neighbourhood of coal-mines. The grounds of Halsnead Park, in the south-east, a rather bare, sparsely timbered estate, fill up a little more than one quarter of the whole area of the township. To the west of Halsnead is Ridgate. The rest of the land is laid out in pastures and cultivated fields where potatoes, turnips, and corn are raised, the loamy and gravelly soil seeming very fertile. There are occasional substantial-looking farms. The northern part of the township is bare and has an unfinished appearance, a good deal of small cottage property standing amongst patches of treeless waste ground. The village of Whiston is almost continuous with Prescot. The roads are generally paved with square stones and are not of the smoothest. The geological formation of the western half of the township consists of the coal measures the eastern moiety, of the lower mottled sandstone of the bunter series, except in the north-eastern corner, where the pebble beds of this series of the new red sandstone formation occur southward as far as Holt.

The western and southern boundaries are formed by two brooks, which unite to flow south through Tarbock. The Prescot and Warrington road, along which run the electric cars, passes through the northern part of the township, and from it two roads spread out, passing through Whiston village, and then to the east and west of Halsnead Park to join the road from Huyton to Cronton. The London and North Western Company's railway from Liverpool to Manchester goes through the centre of the area, and the St. Helens branch through the northern part.

The population in 1901 was 3,430.

Collieries are worked, and form the chief industry. Formerly women as well as men worked in them. (fn. 2) Flower pots are made here. There are also file and tool makers.

Whiston cross stood about a mile and a half southeast of Prescot church and the stocks were close by it. (fn. 3)

The Whiston Parish Council consists of ten members. The Whiston Rural District Council is composed of representatives of all rural townships in the Prescot Union, and has a sanatorium and an isolation hospital in Whiston, in which is also the workhouse for the Prescot Union.


The earliest record of WHISTON is contained in the survey of 1212, in which it is stated that 'Vivian Gernet gave to Robert Travers four plough-lands and a half by the service of the third part of a knight,' parcel of the fee of one knight which he held as chief forester of the forest of Lancaster. (fn. 4) As Vivian Gernet lived in the time of Henry II, an approximate date for the grant is afforded. (fn. 5) Richard Travers occurs about 1190, (fn. 6) and shortly afterwards Henry Travers was lord of Whiston, and granted to Cockersand Abbey an annual rent of 2s. from the mill. (fn. 7) He was succeeded by his son Adam, who confirmed the gift of his father, (fn. 8) and Adam by his younger brother Richard the latter in 1252 was holding the four and a half plough-lands in Whiston. (fn. 9)

Richard had two sons—Roger and Henry the elder succeeded to Whiston, the younger receiving Ridgate from his father, and becoming ancestor of the family of Travers of Ridgate and Hardshaw, which continued down to the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1284 Roger Travers made complaint that Benedict Gernet, Alan de Halsall, and others had disseised him of the manor of Whiston, except one messuage, and it was decreed that he should recover. (fn. 10)

Roger was still living in 1314, (fn. 11) but his son Robert was in possession in 1324. (fn. 12) He received from William de Dacre a confirmation of the manor of Whiston, (fn. 13) and grants of his as late as 1348 are extant. (fn. 14)

John son of Robert Travers had in 1353 a dispute with the rector of Prescot as to a messuage and acre of land which the latter claimed as belonging to his church (fn. 15) and there were further disputes in 1369 and 1370. (fn. 16) Early in 1390 he made a general feoffment of his manor of Whiston and lands, (fn. 17) which his feoffees in April, 1394, regranted to John Travers of Whiston and Margaret his wife, with remainder to Richard, son of Thomas Travers and the heirs between him and Cecily his wife, daughter of Thomas de Strangeways. (fn. 18) Richard was probably the grandson of John Travers, and very young at the time it is not known whether the marriage then arranged ever took place, but in 1408 Richard was contracted to marry Katherine, daughter of Sir John de Bold. (fn. 19) He was still living in 1444. (fn. 20)

John Travers, son of Richard, appears to have succeeded. By his wife Alice he had a son Thomas, who in 1480 sold the manor of Whiston to Richard Bold of Bold, (fn. 21) whose descendants held it throughout the sixteenth century. (fn. 22) About 1600 it was acquired by the Ogle family, who had long before commenced to purchase parts of the Travers lands. (fn. 23)

Ogle of Whiston. Argent, a fesse between three crescents gules.

The Ogles appear in Lancashire in the middle of the fifteenth century as stewards of the manor of Prescot. John Ogle, the earliest known, is said to have been a son of Sir Robert, first Lord Ogle, who died in 1469. (fn. 24) Early in 1472 John Ogle of Prescot purchased lands in Rainhill from John, son and heir of Hugh Woodfall. (fn. 25) Margaret, widow of John Ogle, and Roger their son purchased lands from John Travers, (fn. 26) and the family continued to prosper, becoming possessors of the manors of Whiston and Halsnead, the purchaser being John Ogle. (fn. 27)

John's son and heir Henry, born about 1586, (fn. 28) married in 1610 Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Whitby of Chester, (fn. 29) and had by her a numerous offspring. He died about 1649, (fn. 30) but does not seem to have taken any part in the Civil War. Two of his sons, however, took arms on the king's side. Cuthbert, the eldest, received a commission from the earl of Derby, but soon retired, and in 1646 took the National Covenant in London and compounded for his estates by a fine of £120. (fn. 31) Henry his brother, holding a similar commission, took part in the defence of Lathom House. (fn. 32)

Cuthbert died in 1670, the heir being his son Edward, (fn. 33) whose daughter and eventual heir Elizabeth carried the manor to her husband Jonathan Case, of the Red Hazels in Huyton. (fn. 34) About the beginning of last century the manor was held by Richard Willis of Halsnead, to whose heirs it has descended but the hall was then in the possession of John Ashton Case, a Liverpool merchant, great-grandson of the above-named Jonathan. (fn. 35)

Richard Travers, as already stated, gave his younger son Henry his land in RIDGATE (fn. 36) in Whiston, which had been granted to him by the hospital of St. John outside the Northgate of Chester at a rent of 12d. (fn. 37) Henry Travers had sons John and Henry, (fn. 38) and the latter apparently a son and successor named John, (fn. 39) contemporary with the John Travers son of Robert, who was lord of Whiston. The descent cannot be traced with certainty. (fn. 40)

At the end of the fifteenth century appears another John, followed by Henry (fn. 41) and Robert early in the next. (fn. 42) About 1560 the last-named was succeeded by his son John, who died in October, 1583, holding the manor of Ridgate of the queen, as of the late dissolved hospital of St. John at Chester, by a rent of 12d., and lands in Whiston, Hardshaw, and Rainford. (fn. 43)

His heir was his son John, (fn. 44) twenty-three years of age, who soon afterwards became implicated in the Babington plot, for which he was executed as a traitor in 1586, his property being forfeited. (fn. 45) William Travers, believed to be a brother, recovered Ridgate and most of the lands held by the father dying in 1591 he was succeeded by a younger brother, Henry Travers, described as of 'Hardshaw.' (fn. 46) After this Ridgate seems to have passed away to the Bolds and Ogles, together with Whiston. (fn. 47)

About 1285 Henry de Torbock and Ellen his wife granted their land in Ridgate to Burscough Priory. (fn. 48) From the charters it would appear that Ridgate was partly within Tarbock, but later inquisitions state that the Torbocks' land in Ridgate was held of the lord of Whiston. (fn. 49)

At the halmote of the manor held in 1523 a record was made of the bounds, and in 1526 Sir Richard Bold, lord of the manor, was reported to have wrongfully enclosed part of the Copped Holt. (fn. 50)


HALSNEAD (fn. 51) is first mentioned in 1246, when William, son of William Assolfi, and William, Adam, and John, his sons, with others, were convicted of having dispossessed Siward de Derwent and Cecily his wife of an acre belonging to the fourth part of Halsnead. (fn. 52)

Three generations of a family bearing the local name appear next—Adam, Ralph, and Thomas. Adam de Halsnead granted his 'whole vill of Halsnead' to his son Ralph, and Ralph granted it to Richard son of Alan le Norreys. (fn. 53) In 1278 and 1284 Richard le Norreys appeared as plaintiff against Richard Travers and Henry Travers of Whiston, as already stated. (fn. 54) The next step is not clear, but Halsnead passed from Richard's son Alan to Robert le Norreys of Burtonhead, and his son John was in possession from 1324 onwards. (fn. 55) Dying about 1346 John was followed by his son Nicholas, who occurs from time to time down to the end of the reign of Edward III (fn. 56) he may be the Nicholas le Norreys of Burtonhead whose son succeeded to that manor, but though the Burtonhead family afterwards acquired part of Halsnead, the Wetherbys were the heirs in 1422. (fn. 57) The two families of Wetherby (fn. 58) and Pemberton (fn. 59) remained in possession down to the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the Ogles of Whiston probably acquired the lordship. (fn. 60)

Their tenure did not continue long. In 1684 Thomas Willis, a merchant of Liverpool, purchased Halsnead and settled there. (fn. 61) He had a son Martin, whose children Thomas (fn. 62) and Daniell (fn. 63) dying without issue, Halsnead went to their cousin Thomas, grandson of William Swettenham of Swettenham, by his wife Bertha, daughter of Thomas Willis. (fn. 64) The heir took the name of Willis, but his son Thomas dying without issue in 1788, another cousin of Daniell Willis, by his mother's side, succeeded. This was Ralph Earle, who took the name of Willis. (fn. 65) He died two years later, when his son and heir Richard came into possession and held it till his death in 1837. He was succeeded by his sons Richard, Joseph, and Daniell in turn the last of these died in 1873, and his son Henry Rodolph D'Anyers Willis, in 1902 the latter's son Richard Atherton D'Anyers Willis, born in 1871, is the present lord of the manors of Whiston and Halsnead. (fn. 66) No courts are held.

Willis of Halsnead. Argent, a fesse between three lions rampant gules a border ermine.

The Athertons of Halsnead occur frequently in the fifteenth century. (fn. 67)

The freeholders of Whiston in 1600 were John Ogle, James Pemberton of Halsnead, and Peter Wetherby (fn. 68) in 1628 they were Henry Ogle, James Pemberton, and George Wetherby. (fn. 69) According to the hearth-tax list there were in Whiston in 1666 eighteen houses of three hearths and more the principal was that of Henry Ogle, with eleven. (fn. 70) The 'Papists' estates' registered in 1717 included those of Henry Case, a house and coal mine William, son of Robert Case and William Forrest. (fn. 71) The land tax returns of 1787 show that the principal owners there were Thomas Willis of Low Halsnead, the Case trustees, and Thomas Mackin.

In connexion with the Established Church, St. Nicholas's was built in 1868, succeeding a licensed chapel opened in 1846. (fn. 72) There are chapels for the Wesleyan Methodists and the United Free Methodists, erected in 1832 and 1879 respectively. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists also have a chapel, built in 1890.

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The company's divisions—Concessions, Engineering and Infrastructure and Services—achieved profits of €108 million, compared to €47 million during the same period of 2019. This increase is in addition to a 100-basis-point rise in profitability to 16.7%.

The company has begun operations in the new normal without any significant impact. This showcases the success of the business model of the multinational, which generates around 80% of its EBITDA through concession-related assets with low demand risk.

The company's backlog of future revenue comes to €39.445 billion.

Sacyr promotes sustainability as one of its key pillars and strategic objectives. To that end, its corporate governance is fortified with a Sustainability and Corporate Governance Committee, attached to the Board of Directors, and a Sustainability Committee.

Sacyr increased its EBITDA by 10.4% to €348 million in the first half of 2020, a period marked by the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, thanks to the robustness of its business model, which is becoming increasingly oriented toward concessions. In fact, 77% of its EBITDA came from the concession activity of its three major business areas: Concessions, Engineering and Infrastructure and Services.

Sacyr actively managed the situation in order, first and foremost, to protect its more than 40,000 employees worldwide. In addition, it ensured the continuity of its operations, some of which are considered essential or of public interest.

During the period, the multinational embarked upon the new normal in almost all of its operations without having recorded major impacts. Nevertheless, in March the Group made a precautionary provision of €30 million in the face of the uncertainty surrounding the evolution of the pandemic.

Revenues grew 3.5% between January and June, reaching €2.079 billion . This increase amounts to 8% relative to the size of the company, given the divestment of various assets during the last few months: Guadalcesa, generation and cogeneration plants, and various water-related assets in Portugal. The EBITDA posted (+10.4%) would increase by 19% if these asset disposals were discounted.

Improved profitability

The net profit generated by the businesses reflects the positive performance of the three divisions of Sacyr despite COVID-19. It stood at €108 million, compared to €47 million in the first half of 2019.

The group's attributable net profit was €70 million, less than the €80 million achieved in the same period last year. Net profit was impacted by the profits and stock-market performance of Repsol, in which Sacyr owns a stake. The oil company's contribution to Sacyr's profits was -€18 million. The book value of Repsol was €8.66/share as at June 30th, 2020.

Sacyr improved the profitability of its businesses in the first half of the year, thus delivering on one of the company's priority objectives. The EBITDA margin was up 100 basis points reaching 16.7%.

Assuming that you have all the equipment that you need to get you online: a WIFI internet connection, a laptop or a desktop computer, a smartphone to connect from coffee shops. Let’s start with some of the well-known benefits of remote work.

Remote Work and Flexibility

For those who work remotely, there is one thing that they share in common. It is flexibility. An increasing amount of businesses recognize the benefit of flexible working. Parents can now get more flexibility in their schedules. And one of the best perks of remote work is the absence of daily commute to or from work! People have a greater choice about where they live with a population shift from big cities to less populated areas.

  • flexibility: souplesse
  • schedules flexibility: souplesse des horaires
  • commute time to work: durée des trajets pour se rendre au travail

Less Distraction

People who work from home have a better work-life balance. Although remote work has blurred some of the boundaries between work and home lives, remote workers often report less stress and a better focus. Employees who suffered from the policy of open spaces can now benefit from a less distracting environment.

Many people who work from home can structure their workdays in a way that supports their productivity. People are less likely to be distracted and therefore enjoy a more focused work environment than the one at the office.

  • remote workers: télétravailleurs
  • blur the boundaries between work and home lives: diminuer la distinction entre travail et vie perso
  • better work-life balance: meilleur équilibre entre la vie pro et la vie perso
  • support their productivity: renforcer la productivité
  • more focused work environment: environnement de travail plus favorable à la concentration

Job Satisfaction

Remote work not only improves employees’ work-life balance but also productivity and retention rates increases within your company. However, organizations must take action to create a sense of belonging among remote employees. In addition, every company has to build a successful remote culture for its workforce.

Remote work contributes to job satisfaction. But without a sense of belonging employees’ turn over or productivity might suffer. Job satisfaction, a sense of belonging, and productivity go hand in hand. As reported in this research, feeling a sense of belonging, which is when we feel safe and valued for embracing what makes us different, makes us happier and more productive.

Key DE-348 - History

Published in Business and Politics on 25 April 2017 https://doi.org/10.1017/bap.2017.6 Since 200. more Published in Business and Politics on 25 April 2017

Since 2008, a massive shift has occurred from active towards passive investment strategies. The passive index fund industry is dominated by BlackRock, Vanguard, and State Street, which we call the 'Big Three'. We comprehensively map the ownership of the Big Three in the United States and find that together they constitute the largest shareholder in 88 percent of the S&P500 firms. In contrast to active funds, the Big Three hold relatively illiquid and permanent ownership positions. This has led to opposing views on incentives and possibilities to actively exert shareholder power. Some argue passive investors have little shareholder power because they cannot 'exit', while others point out this gives them stronger incentives to actively influence corporations. Through an analysis of proxy vote records we find that the Big Three do utilize coordinated voting strategies and hence follow a centralized corporate governance strategy. However, they generally vote with management, except at director (re-)elections. Moreover, the Big Three may exert 'hidden power' through two channels: First, via private engagements with management of invested companies and second, because company executives could be prone to internalizing the objectives of the Big Three. We discuss how this development entails new forms of financial risk.  The authors thank Nicholas Hogan for excellent research assistance and Frank Takes for helpful comments. This research has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant no. 638946).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as enacted in 2010 required most Americans to obta. more The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as enacted in 2010 required most Americans to obtain minimum essential health insurance
coverage and imposed a monetary penalty upon most individuals who
failed to do so. Amendments to the Act in 2017 effectively nullified the
penalty by setting its amount to . Subsequently, Texas (along with
over a dozen States and two individuals) brought suit against federal
officials, claiming that without the penalty the Act’s minimum essential coverage provision, codified at 26 U. S. C. §5000A(a), is unconstitutional. They sought a declaration that the provision is unconstitutional, a finding that the rest of the Act is not severable from §5000A(a), and an injunction against enforcement of the rest of the Act. The District Court determined that the individual plaintiffs had standing. It also found section 5000A(a) both unconstitutional and not severable from the rest of the Act. The Fifth Circuit agreed as to the existence of standing and the unconstitutionality of §5000A(a), but concluded that the District Court’s severability analysis provided insufficient justification to strike down the entire Act. Petitioner California and other States intervened to defend the Act’s constitutionality and to seek further review.

Held: Plaintiffs do not have standing to challenge §5000A(a)’s minimum
essential coverage provision because they have not shown a past or
future injury fairly traceable to defendants’ conduct enforcing the specific statutory provision they attack as unconstitutional. Pp. 4–16

This is a wonderful part of Kunstler's speech. But actually, if you read it all, the entire speec. more This is a wonderful part of Kunstler's speech. But actually, if you read it all, the entire speech is inspiring.

Every generation has its time to struggle. There are no green pastures.

Herman Melville wrote a book called Moby Dick. I was in the Attica yard on September 12, 1971, just 30 miles from here, sitting with an old client, Sam Melville, who was to have his head blown off the next morning with double-0 buckshot when the troopers moved in and killed 39 people, including guards as well as inmates. I said, “Sam, where’d you get the name Melville?”

He said, “I got the name Melville because I took it. My real name is not Melville, but I was so impressed by what he was saying in Moby Dick that I took that name.”

“So,” I said, “what about Moby Dick? It’s just a whale story.” I remember seeing a movie where Ahab was not Gregory Peck–that’s maybe some of your generation–but John Barrymore played the first Ahab in the first motion picture Moby Dick. And I said, “It’s just a whale story.”

He said, “No, it’s not, Bill. The white whale is evil, that swims on unconquering and unconquerable. Everybody dies on the Pequod. The Pequod is smashed to smithereens by the whale. Ahab is lashed by the harpoon lanyard to the whale’s back and is drowned, the men in the long boat are destroyed, but one man goes back to sea. You can remember his name: it was Ishmael.” And that’s how the book essentially ends, Ishmael goes back to sea.

No matter how bad the situation gets, there is always someone who goes back to sea. As long as that continues and there are those people, and it’s not the majority, believe me….

We sit here today in the comparative freedom of this institution and, yea, I’ll say this country for the moment (though I don’t believe it, too much), but I will say it, because of better men and women than we who went down in the dust somewhere in the line. They died or rotted in prisons, were expatriated, but they kept going. They were the Ishmaels of their time and our time.

This is not meant to be a speech of cynicism or to tell you how pessimistically I see the world. I’ve never seen it that way. I’ve spent over fifty years practicing this so-called profession in one state or another. I just came here from Minnesota where Qubilah Shabazz was finally set free from her ordeal in Minneapolis, and next week I go somewhere else. And I am hopeful that there always will be those Ishmaels. Those are the people I really talk to and really look for, those who are like the David of Michelangelo’s statue (which you have in the Delaware Park here). Michelangelo’s David is a good example for all of you. This is the only representation in art of David before he kills Goliath. All the rest– Donatello’s bronze, the paintings–show him holding up the severed head of Goliath, as Goliath leads the Philistines down the hills of Galilee toward the Israelites. Michelangelo is saying, across these four centuries, that every person’s life has a moment when you are thinking of doing something that will jeopardize yourself. And if you don’t do it, no one will be the wiser that you even thought of it. So, it’s easy to get out of it. And that’s what David is doing right there. He’s got the rock in the right hand, the sling over the left shoulder, and he’s saying like Prufrock, “Do I dare, do I dare?”