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Warship Identification Needed

Warship Identification Needed


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I recently acquired these photos at an antique store with no ID. Can anyone help?

https://www.flickr.com/photos/photolibrarian/13332146503/

https://www.flickr.com/photos/photolibrarian/13332001565/


Scanning through samples of the List of US Destroyer Classes and List of US Cruiser Classes for examples of the 2-and-2 funnel arrangement and unusual bow-turret combination reveals the Omaha-class (light) Cruiser as the only US warship class that fits: Note the matching 2-and-2 funnel arrangement, stacked single-barrelled casemates to port and starboard on the bow, and double-barrelled forward-facing turret. This combination of features is unique to the Omaha class amongst US Destroyer and Cruiser classes, and the gun configuration is repeated at the stern.

Commissioned vessels of the class comprised the following:
- CL-4 USS Omaha Launched 24 Feb 1923
- CL-5 USS Milwaukee Launched 20 Jun 1923
- CL-6 USS Cincinnati Launched 1 Jan 1924
- CL-7 USS Raleigh Launched 6 Feb 1924
- CL-8 USS Detroit Launched 31 Jul 1923
- CL-9 USS Richmond Launched 2 Jul 1923
- CL-10 USS Concord Launched 3 Nov 1923
- CL-11 USS Trenton Launched 19 Apr 1924
- CL-12 USS Marblehead Launched 8 Sep 1924
- CL-13 USS Memphis Launched 4 Feb 1925

Here is another clear picture of the bow of USS Omaha itself in which the similarities can be identified clearly (from Old Ship Galleries):

I have reviewed all pictures in the Old Ship Picture Galleries under the names beginning with Omaha and Detroit, and confirmed that OP's pictures are not in that collection under either of those names. If others might wish to check the remaining vessels in the class - someone might get lucky.

The next step (I believe) is if someone can identify any one of the bridge, water-tower, or hills in the background of this picture to try and identify which port the pictures were taken in. Combining that with the known service records of the vessels in the class should narrow down the candidates to one or two, with possible dates as well.

Update:
I have now checked out both Halifax, NS, and St. John, NB, harbours as well, but neither seems to fit. Halifax harbour seems too large, and the bridge too new (1955, apparently without any antecedent) to fit. St. John seems about the right size, and has a tidal range to match the high dock shown, but it's bridge seems to be too short a span to fit. I easily found photos of both showing a similar range of hills running down to the water, but neither at the correct angle from a pier.

With many thanks to @Comintern, the picture appears to have been taken from the upper deck of the Steel Bridge in Portland Oregon, looking South towards the Burnside Bridge even to the still existing water tower:

Also, from NavSourceOnline CL6 USS Cincinnatti visited Portland OR in the late 1930's.

Courtesy of Comintern's comments below:

I was trying to think of river naval stations that were in hilly areas and thought I'd look around Portland. The only Omaha class cruiser that I can place in Portland is the USS Cincinnati, which was there in mid-August of 1933 based on a postal cover I ran across. Here she is sailing into the city, likely between 1935 and 1938: navsource.org/archives/04/006/0400607.jpg">


The 15 Different Types of Sailing Ships

Sitting down at the harbor, watching seagulls and other marine birds dive to capture fish for food, Richard spotted a sailing ship that he had never seen cross that harbor before.

It was his pastime to come and while away the evenings on most days at the harbor and watch the sun go down.

The silhouettes of various ships passing by, and he could even recall their names when he saw them. These ships were the contemporary engine-driven ships.

But today he saw one that had majestic sails and it made him sit up, pondering on the types of ships that had graced the harbor over time.

What Richard did not know is that hundreds of thousands of ships have sailed the oceans and seas around the world for centuries.

He made a mental note to go to the library and find out how many types of ships have sailed the waters of the globe.

You don’t need to go to the library this article will show you 15 different types of ships that have made their mark in maritime history, their purposes and why they are still remarkable feats of engineering.

So grab a cup of coffee and get ready to learn about these amazing vessels.

All ships are unique and no two types of ships identical. Each comes with its own experiences and requirements. The different sizes, shapes and masts of the ships required different numbers of sailors to handle them. Each type of ship was crafted with a different purpose in mind.

Here are the top 15 types of ships of all time.


Olympic

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Olympic, in full Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Olympic, British luxury liner that was a sister ship of the Titanic and the Britannic. It was in service from 1911 to 1935.

To compete with the Cunard Line for the highly profitable transatlantic passenger trade, the White Star Line decided to create a class of liners noted more for comfort than speed. The first ships ordered were the Olympic and Titanic the Britannic was added later. The Belfast firm of Harland and Wolff began construction of the Olympic on December 16, 1908, with the laying of the keel. After work finished on the hull and main superstructure, the Olympic was launched on October 20, 1910. At the time of its completion in 1911, the Olympic was perhaps the world’s most luxurious liner. It was also the largest, with a length of approximately 882 feet (269 metres) and a gross tonnage of 45,324. It could carry more than 2,300 passengers.

To much fanfare, the Olympic embarked on its maiden voyage on June 14, 1911, traveling from Southampton, England, to New York City. The ship was captained by Edward J. Smith, who would later helm the Titanic. In September 1911 during its fifth commercial voyage, the Olympic collided with the HMS Hawke near the Isle of Wight, southern England. It was later determined that suction from the Olympic had pulled the Hawke into the ocean liner. Both ships suffered major damage, and the Olympic did not return to service until November 1911.

After the Titanic sank in 1912, the Olympic underwent major safety improvements. In addition to an increase in the number of lifeboats, the ship’s double bottom was lengthened, and five of its watertight compartments (which featured doors that allowed the sections to be isolated from each other) were raised from E deck to B deck. The ship resumed its transatlantic crossings in April 1913. Despite the start of World War I in 1914, the liner continued to operate commercial voyages, and in October it helped rescue survivors of the HMS Audacious, which had struck a mine near Tory Island, Ireland. In 1915 the Olympic was requisitioned as a troop ship. It subsequently made a number of solo Atlantic crossings to ferry Canadian and U.S. troops to Europe. In May 1918 the Olympic sighted a German U-boat near the Isles of Scilly, England, and rammed and sank the enemy vessel. The following year “Old Reliable,” as the liner was nicknamed, ended its military career. It subsequently underwent major renovations before resuming commercial voyages in June 1920.

Despite competition from larger ships, the Olympic remained a popular vessel, making frequent Atlantic crossings. On May 15, 1934, in a heavy fog, the Olympic struck and sank the Nantucket lightship, a boat that was positioned to mark the shoals near Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Seven of the 11 crewmen aboard the lightship were killed, and the Olympic was later blamed for the accident. In April 1935 the Olympic was retired from service. It was later sold for scrapping, and many of the fixtures and fittings were bought and put on display by various establishments, notably the White Swan Hotel in Alnwick, Northumberland, England.


Most Immigrants Arriving at Ellis Island in 1907 Were Processed in a Few Hours

More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954—with a whopping 1,004,756 entering the United States in 1907 alone. And yet, even during these days of peak immigration, for most passengers hoping to establish new lives in the United States, the process of entering the country was over and done  relatively quickly—in a matter of a few hours.

The passengers disembarking ships at the gateway station in 1907 were arriving due to a number of factors, including a strong domestic economy and pogrom outbreaks of violence against Jews in the Russian Empire, says Vincent Cannato, associate professor of history at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and author of American Passage: The History of Ellis Island.

“It varied from person to person, but for 80 percent, the process took a few hours, and then they were out and through,” he says. 𠇋ut it could also take a couple days, a couple weeks, a couple months or, in some very rare cases, a couple of years.”

A woman and her three children about to undergo a medical examination at Ellis Island in 1907. (Credit: The New York Public Library/Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images).

Barry Moreno, historian and librarian at the Ellis Island Immigration Museum, says most Ellis Island passengers in 1907 came from Europe, with Italians comprising the largest number of immigrants. He says a passenger manifest document, written in script, was created from the point of departure, which included each passenger’s name, age, occupation, destination and other information. “This document would be crucially important when the immigrants got to New York,” he says.

The process went something like this: Before the ship was allowed to enter into New York Harbor, according to Moreno, it had to stop at a quarantine checkpoint off the coast of Staten Island where doctors would look for dangerous contagious diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, plague, cholera and leprosy. Once the ship passed inspection, immigration officers began boarding the ship via rope ladders, before it docked.

“They had to start immigration procedures really fast because there were so many passengers—often as many as 2,000 to 3,000 passengers from all classes,” Moreno says. “You could have as many as 1,500 passengers in third class alone.”

First- and second-class passengers (billionaires, stage stars, merchants, businessmen and the like) were interviewed and allowed to disembark once the ship docked. “Now, in 1907, no passports or visas were needed to enter the United States,” he says. “In fact, no papers were required at all. This was a paperless period. All you had to do was verbally give information to the official when you boarded ship in Europe and that information was the only information used when they arrived.”

Immigrants on their way to Ellis Island, on the deck of the S.S. Patricia, 1906. (Credit: Library of Congress/Popperfoto/Getty Images)

Steerage passengers, who were given manifest tags so that inspectors could find their information with ease, were then confronted by U.S. customs officers, who would quickly check bags for dutiable goods or contraband. The passengers were then put aboard small steamboats and brought to Ellis Island. “The boats would carry 700, 800, even 1,000 passengers,” Moreno says. “The passengers would be ordered to form two separate lines one of women and children, including boys under the age of 15, and one of men, with as many as 10,000 passengers and several steam ships arriving per day.”

First up, was a medical examination performed by military surgeons, according to Moreno. �use they were dressed as military men, it often puzzled and confused immigrants, who were mostly peasants, poor Jews or small townspeople,” he says. “They didn’t understand who these men were. They thought they were policemen or soldiers. But as these long, long endless lines formed, the doctors had to examine everyone, as quickly as possible, for eye disease, skin disorders, heart disease and more.”

The doctors also had to know a few words of instruction in many languages. “Most of the immigrants were illiterate even in their own languages,” Moreno notes. 𠇊nd by 1907, the doctors had already developed a secret code system using a piece of chalk. They would mark the passenger’s clothes with a letter of the alphabet: ‘H’ indicated heart trouble suspected ‘L’ suspected lameness ‘X’ suspected feeble-mindedness, and so on.”

Those marked, Moreno says, were removed from the line and “taken across the room where you were locked in a pen, a cage, called the doctor’s pen” until the doctors were free to continue further examinations or questioning.

Physicians examining a group of Jewish immigrants who are gathered in a small room on Ellis Island. (Credit: Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty images)

“Only about 10 percent of people were detained for this kind of questioning,” he says. “Ninety percent got through this line of questioning without any problem. Why? Partly because the doctors knew there wasn’t enough space to detain too many people.”

Next, immigrants were filtered into long lines to be interviewed by inspectors (often with the help of interpreters). “The inspector would verify the passenger manifest by rereading the information provided,” Moreno says. “If everything was OK, he would just make a little check mark by your name, but if your answers were bad, wrong or suspicious, or if secret information had arrived about you previous to your arrival, your name was marked with an ‘X’ and you were told you would be detained.”

�tention meant you could be held overnight, and you would sleep in dormitory rooms and you would be fed three meals a day in the immigrants’ dining room,” Moreno says. “You would be forced to stay at Ellis Island until something was resolved, such as being wired money or being able to provide an address.” He says serious detention cases, which were rare, could be designated for almost any reason but usually had something to do with questions of morality (if, for example, a woman was pregnant and unmarried) or criminal accusations. “They were looking for suspected anarchists, persons who were politically dangerous and contract laborers—immigrants who were being brought in to break strikes.”


World of Warships

In order to achieve victory in battle, players must employ a wide range of strategies in a variety of tactical decisions. Sudden ambushes, cunning flanking attacks, open confrontation and "head-on" assaults — captains must strive to find an ideal way to deliver a decisive blow at the enemy.

Tactical diversity in World of Warships comes from the inclusion of many different classes of warships, including: aircraft carriers, capable of providing remote air support and striking targets at extreme range colossal battleships that project power across vast swaths of ocean light and heavy cruisers with the capability to quickly respond to changing battlefield conditions and stealthy, agile destroyers which can be highly effective in group attacks.

  World of Warships Official Homepage     Download the World of Warships Game Guide  

Ironclad

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ironclad, type of warship developed in Europe and the United States in the mid-19th century, characterized by the iron casemates that protected the hull. In the Crimean War (1853–56) the French and British successfully attacked Russian fortifications with “floating batteries,” ironclad barges mounting heavy guns, that were towed into position. The French built the first iron warship, the Gloire, completed in 1859. The Gloire’s iron plates were about 4.5 inches (11 cm) thick and backed by heavy timber. Displacing 5,617 tons, the vessel carried 36 guns. A sister ship, Couronne, soon followed two British ironclads, the Black Prince and Warrior, each of 9,210 tons and capable of 14.5 knots, were completed in 1861 and 1862. Meanwhile, at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Captain James Buchanan Eads of St. Louis, Mo., constructed shallow-draft armoured gunboats for use on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. A flotilla of them captured Confederate Fort Henry on Feb. 6, 1862, and successfully engaged a Confederate squadron in April 1862 at Memphis, Tenn., the first ironclads to fight enemy warships. On March 9, 1862, the Monitor and the Merrimack (correctly, the Virginia) fought their historic duel off Hampton Roads, Va., the first battle between ironclads.


Underway replenishment (UNREP)

The first significant underway replenishment (UNREP) operation at sea was with the collier USS Marcellus and the Navy warship USS Massachusetts in 1899. Since this first UNREP, many methods for transferring cargo have been tried. On board the USNS Rappahannock the two major methods of transferring dry cargo are via VERTREP with a helicopter, and wire highline utilizing a standard tensioned replenishment alongside method or STREAM rig.

Underway replenishment (UNREP) is a broad term applied to all methods of transferring fuel, munitions, supplies, and personnel from one ship to another while the vessels are underway. Two general methods of UNREP are used - connected (CONREP) and vertical (VERTREP). They may be used singly or at the same time. In connected replenishment, two or more ships steam side-by-side and the hoses and lines used to transfer fuel, ammunition, supplies, and personnel connect the ships.

Vertical replenishment is carried out by helicopters with the ships in close proximity, or miles apart depending on the tactical situation and the amount of cargo to be transferred. Connected replenishment involves two processes - refueling and re-supply. In fueling at sea (FAS), fuel is pumped from the delivering ship like the USNS Rappahannock, or a Navy vessel such as a fast combat support ship (AOE). Other replenishment ships such as the combat stores ship (AFS) and the ammunition ship (AE) can deliver fuel, but their primary mission is the delivery of dry cargo by methods referred to replenishment at sea (RAS).

There are several factors in favor of replenishment with the ships alongside each other instead of astern. First, by replenishing alongside, the oiler or other auxiliary ship, can service two ships at once, with multiple replenishment stations to each ship. Second, by replenishing alongside rather than astern, the whole formation of ships can maintain greater speed (up to 16 knots instead of the 7-8 knot maximum for astern refueling). Third, by replenishing alongside, both fuel and dry cargo can be transferred, instead of being limited to fuel only. Astern fueling does have a place in the replenishment plan, but it is generally limited to a tanker in convoy refueling the convoy escorts.

Underway replenishment techniques continue to advance with the introduction of new systems and equipment. STREAM stands for Standard Tensioned Replenishment Alongside Method and is utilized in both RAS and FAS evolutions. The STREAM rig is preferred over other connected replenishment methods as it permits greater ships separation.

When utilizing the STREAM rig for FAS operations a tensioned spanwire is suspended between the two ships. A series of hose saddles are attached to the spanwire by trolleys. The actual transfer hoses are then suspended in between the saddles. The receiving end of the hose rig is tipped with a coupling. A variety of fueling couplings may be used to ensure compatibility between the delivery and receiving ships. The most common is a probe fueling coupling. The probe may be used in the transfer of either DFM or JP-5 products. The probe itself has a latching mechanism that holds it in the receiver by spring force. The receiver is mounted on the receiving ship by a swivel arm. The swivel arm allows the receiver to move throughout the full working range of the receiving station, ensuring proper alignment prevents the probe from unseating. The probe assembly will unseat from the receiver when a 2,500 lb. line pull is applied. The receiver also has a manual release lever, which is the desired way to release the probe upon completion of the fuel transfer.

During RAS the STREAM transfer rig utilizes a tensioned wire highline suspended between two ships. The exact type of STREAM rig is dependent on the kind of cargo. In all rigs, cargo to be transferred is connected to a trolley, which rides on the highline. The trolley is moved between the ships by inhaul and outhaul winches located on the delivery ship. When using a STREAM rig with all tensioned wires, the wire rope outhaul is fairled through a SURF (Standard Underway Replenishment Fixture) block and attached to the outboard side of the trolley. The SURF is located on the receiving ship. A ram tensioner, located on the delivery ship, applies highline tension ensuring constant load support regardless of ship separation or motion. However, if ship separation becomes too great the amount of wire on the winch drum may be exceeded. A stream rig can handle loads up to 8,750 lbs. under ideal conditions.

A replenishment at sea consists of two or more ships, one of which will be designated the "guide" ship. The guide will generally be the ship delivering cargo, but in a two-ship replenishment this may be changed. From the shiphandling aspect, the responsibility of the guide ship is to maintain steady course (by gyro) and speed (by engine). The other ship(s) are referred to as "approach" ship(s), and their job is to come to station alongside the guide and maintain that station throughout the replenishment. The goal of the approach ship is to come alongside the guide, with sending and receiving stations aligned, at a lateral separation of about 160 feet, and then maintain that station throughout the replenishment.

The first step in conducting a replenishment at sea, from the operations and shiphandling standpoint, is to coordinate a rendezvous time and position. While this is being done, additional information such as fuel quantities required and fueling stations and fittings available will also be exchanged and coordinated. Selecting a good rendezvous position, with plenty of clear water and acceptable to all ships' operational requirements, often requires some compromise of less urgent requirements in favor of more important considerations. If either ship has other pressing commitments, the replenishment course and speed (Romeo Corpen) may also be a subject for discussion during the planning and coordination stages.

Once the receiving (also referred to as "customer" or "approach") ship rendezvous with the delivery (or "guide") ship, the next task, if not already accomplished, is to agree on a Romeo Corpen. Normal speed for auxiliary ship replenishments will be 12-14 knots. Selecting the replenishment course can be more of a challenge, depending on sea state. Replenishments are routinely conducted in sea state 4, with highly skilled personnel on both ships they can successfully be conducted in sea state 5. A rule of thumb is that if the guide ship is able to remain within 1 degree of base course, the replenishment is a definite "go". If the guide is yawing 1.5 degrees, it is a judgment call based on skill and experience, as well as operational necessity. And if the guide is yawing as much as 2 degrees on either side of base course, it's probably not possible to safely conduct a replenishment. Replenishments will normally be conducted on a Romeo Corpen that best satisfies both ships' follow on commitments, but in extreme conditions the sea state will determine the course, and even whether the replenishment is possible. Quartering seas are the worst possible situation from a shiphandling standpoint.

Once a Romeo Corpen is agreed upon and the guide ship is steady on that course and speed, the receiving ship's next task is to come to waiting station. The duty of the guide ship is to steer the agreed upon course and maintain a constant engine speed. Both ships will have gear tested and stations manned to at least the same standard used for sea details at arrival and departure from port. The purpose of waiting station is threefold. First, it improves the efficiency of the operation by having the approach ship begin coming alongside from a fairly close station (shorter approach times, less waiting around on deck). Second, it provides the approach ship an opportunity to accurately gauge the guide ship's course and speed. And last, but not least, it gives everyone on the bridge, including the Master, a chance to acclimate to being at such close proximity to another ship. All shiphandling on the approach ship side is relative to what the guide ship is doing, so matching course and speed is critical. A waiting station of 600 yards astern the guide ship, and just outside the guide ship's wake on the appropriate side, maintains about 100 feet of open water between the approach ship's side and the guide's wake. Ships normally spend at least ten minutes in waiting station, and may spend 30 minutes to an hour if one arrives early.

When the guide ship is ready to receive the customer ship alongside, she'll indicate that by hauling up the Romeo flag on the appropriate side. At that time, or whenever ready, the customer ship will commence her approach alongside the guide. The approach ship indicates the commencement of her "approach" by also hauling up the Romeo flag on the appropriate side.

Replenishment at sea demands the very best of helmsmanship from both the guide and approach ships. As the two ships close each other, the hydrodynamic forces will both change and increase noticeably. At a replenishment speed of 12 knots, a one degree course variation will move the ship 20 feet sideways per minute. The best separation alongside during the replenishment depends on a number of factors, but is controlled by wanting to ensure the safest separation while keeping the probes seated. For surface combatants, 140-160 feet seems to work well. Larger ships seem to favor 160-180 feet. Carriers are especially challenging because of the flight deck overhang, but by the time the separation increases to 200 feet, they are probably at the point of unseating the probes.

To commence the approach and begin closing the guide, all that's required of the approach ship is to increase engine speed by 4-5 knots. On Rappahannock, we would normally use about 60% throttle for 13 knots, so from waiting station we will increase speed to 80-85% (17-18 kts engine speed) to commence the approach. While closing the distance to the guide ship, the lateral separation between ships deserves some attention. However, if the approach ship has established good waiting station, it's likely that nothing more than minor course corrections will be required until alongside.

When about 1 ship length astern of the guide, the approach ship can reduce speed to 1-2 knots above base speed. From this point until alongside and settled in position, matching speed will be the conning officer's primary concern. It's worth noting that an UNREP approach is significantly different from a docking maneuver. Mental adjustments to appropriate relative motions, lateral separation, and vessel aspect must be applied. To put it simply, what looks "right" during a docking maneuver is very different from what looks "right" during an UNREP approach.

As the approach ship's bow crosses the guide ship's stern, but probably not before then, the approach ship can ring up an engine order to match base speed. Before reducing to base speed the conning officer should ensure that he has enough momentum to pass through the pressure wave generated by the guide ship and carry herself into station. At times, the conning officer will match base speed too early and end up stalled out on the guide ship's pressure wave, which can result in a prolonged delay in getting alongside. From this point forward, engine orders to bring the ship into position and match speed are made almost entirely by eye, keeping in mind the base speed determined while in waiting station. The exact matching speed while alongside the guide will probably be very slightly less than the speed required to match while in waiting station. One very effective technique is to order an engine speed somewhat below the matching speed to reduce excess headway, rather than trying to laboriously "glide" into position. However, in using this technique the peculiarities of the ship and the current sea state must be taken into account.

On a large, relatively low-powered auxiliary ship, perhaps the most challenging aspect of replenishment conning is finding the matching speed alongside. Occasionally, the conning officer will basically luck out and hit both proper position and matching speed at the same time. More commonly, he will have to order an engine speed below matching speed to bleed off excess headway, then ring up an engine order above matching speed to catch the afterward drift (relative to the guide ship). It's not unusual to go through several cycles of ordering speeds, alternately, above and below the required final speed to figure out exactly what's required. The goal should be to decrease the range of engine orders until the needed engine setting is determined. One factor that adds to this challenge is the very slow rate of acceleration that most large auxiliaries experience.

As soon as the approach ship reaches adequate position, a shotline is sent for the phone and distance (P&D) line, which is marked every 20 feet by a flag. Once the P&D line is across, the job of maintaining separation becomes much easier, since constant "eyeballing" is no longer required. The P&D line also provides for sound powered bridge-to-bridge communications. Once alongside, the shotlines for the replenishment stations can be sent over, the messenger hauled across, with spanwire and hoses following. The team on deck and in the pumproom are then ready to commence cargo transfer.

Maintaining station alongside is best done through a series of small corrections. Of course, the rougher the conditions, the larger the envelope the ship will be operating in, so course and speed adjustments need to be tailored to the conditions. Ideal station while alongside will generally result in the replenishment rigs being aligned, with a ship-to-ship separation in the 140-180 foot range. At closer separations, the hydrodynamic forces between two large ships begin to build quite rapidly. At greater separations, the replenishment rigs begins to see larger stresses (particularly when a probe fitting is used, which can unseat at due to excessive lateral separation).

Upon completion of cargo transfer, the team on deck will begin sending back or retrieving the replenishment rigs. At this time, a prime concern from the shiphandling standpoint is to maintain station and not begin drifting away from the guide. Lines can become fouled, and in any case the added distance will put more spanwire in the water. Once all lines are clear of the other ship, the approach ship can begin opening the guide. This is probably the easiest part of replenishment shiphandling and can be accomplished by ordering a 2-3 degree course change away from the guide and increasing speed 2-3 knots. As those changes begin to take effect, and with the ships a safe distance apart and opening gradually, the process can be repeated as desired while the ships clear each other.

Replenishment at sea involves an extended period of time where two ships are in close proximity while at relatively high speeds. Any problem at all, either external to the ships or internal to one or more of the ships, can require an immediate and timely disengagement. The Captain of either ship can initiate an emergency breakaway procedures if there is a maneuvering problem or an unsafe situation is developing. An emergency breakaway follows the same procedures as a normal breakaway, but all steps are expedited as much as possible.


REAL ID Checklist

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Types of sails

While the speed of a rowed ship was mainly determined by the number of oarsmen in the crew, in sailing ships the total spread of canvas in the sails was the main determinant of speed. Because winds are not fixed either as to direction or as to force, gaining the maximum effective propulsion from them requires complexly variable sails. There was one constant that characterized navigation by sail throughout its history—to gain speed it was necessary to increase the number of masts on the ship. Ships in both the Mediterranean and the north were single-masted until about 1400 ce and likely as well to be rigged for one basic type of sail. With experience square sails replaced the simple lateen sails that were the mainstay during the Middle Ages, particularly in the Mediterranean.

In the earlier centuries of sailing ships the dominant rig was the square sail, which features a canvas suspended on a boom, held aloft by the mast, and hung across the longitudinal axis of the ship (as shown in the figure ). To utilize the shifting relationship between the desired course of the ship and the present wind direction, the square sail must be twisted on the mast to present an edge to the wind. Among other things this meant that most ships had to have clear decks amidships to permit the shifting of the sail and its boom most of the deck space was thus monopolized by a single swinging sail. Large sails also required a sizable gang of men to raise and lower the sail (and, when reef ports were introduced, to reef the sail, that is, to reduce its area by gathering up the sail at the reef points).

By 1200 the standard sailing ship in the Mediterranean was two-masted, with the foremast larger and hung with a sail new to ordinary navigation at sea. This was the lateen sail, earlier known to the Egyptians and sailors of the eastern Mediterranean. The lateen sail (as shown in the figure ) is triangular in shape and is fixed to a long yard mounted at its middle to the top of the mast. The combination of sails tended to change over the years, though the second mast often carried a square sail.

One broad classification of sails, which included the lateen, was termed “ fore-and-aft” sails—that is, those capable of taking the wind on either their front or back surfaces. Such sails are hung along the longitudinal axis of the ship. By tacking to starboard (the right side) the ship would use the wind from one quarter. Tacking to port (the left side) would use a wind coming from the opposite quarter to attain the same objective.


Vessel Documents Available on Microfilm

Thirteen NARA microfilm publications reproduce vessel documents:

CALIFORNIA

M1867. Indexes to Certificates of Registration and Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at San Francisco, California, 1850-1877 (1 roll).

M1800, Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Chicago, Illinois, 1847-1866, and Related Master Abstracts of Enrollments, 1847-1911. (5 rolls).

RollContents
1Certificates of Enrollment, 1847-1854
2 Certificates of Enrollment, 1855-1861
3 Certificates of Enrollment, 1862-1864
4 Certificates of Enrollment, 1865
5 Certificates of Enrollment, 1866
Master Abstracts of Enrollments, 1847-1911

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the Illinois-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
1Certificates of Registration Issued at Chicago, 1856, 1860-61, 1863-69, 1871-72.
3Master Abstracts of Registers for Great Lakes Ports, 1815-31, 1849, 1855-80, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1894-1910.

MARYLAND

M1873, Selected Vessel Documents Issued for Merchant Vessels at Baltimore, Maryland, 1789-1912. (11 rolls).

RollContents
1Certificates of Registration, 1789-1796
2 Certificates of Registration, 1797-1799
Partial Abstract of Registers, 1800
Certificates of Registration, 1801
3 Certificates of Registration, 1802-1805
4 Certificates of Registration, 1806-1809
5 Certificates of Registration, 1810-1814
6 Master Abstracts of Registers, Jan. 1815-June 1911
7 Certificates of Enrollment, 1791 and June 1793-July 5, 1800
8 Certificates of Enrollment, July 7, 1800-May 1807
9 Certificates of Enrollment, June 1807-Dec. 1814
10 Master Abstracts of Enrollments, Jan. 1815-June 1911
11 Master Abstracts of Licenses for Vessels Under 20 Tons, 1876-1912
Yacht Licenses, 1883-1912

MASSACHUSETTS

M1866. Indexes to Certificates of Registration and Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Boston, Massachusetts, ca. 1827-1868. (1 roll).

  • Volume 1, Certificates Issued from 1836 to 1849, plus entries for those certificates still valid in January 1836
  • Volume 2, Certificates issued from 1850 to 1868, plus entries for those certificates still valid in January 1850
  • Volume 1, Certificates Issued from 1836 to 1849, plus entries for those certificates still valid in January 1836
  • Volume 2, Certificates issued from 1850 to 1868, plus entries for those certificates still valid in January 1850

M130. Certificates of Registry, Enrollment, and License Issued at Edgartown, Massachusetts, 1815-1913. (9 rolls).

RollType of certificate, inclusive years
1Registration, 1815-1842
2 Registration, 1843-1856
3 Registration, 1857-1913
4 Enrollment, 1815-1838
5 Enrollment, 1839-1860
6 Enrollment, 1861-1913
7 Licenses, 1853-1889
8 Licenses, 1890-1899
9 Licenses, 1900-1913

MICHIGAN

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the Michigan-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
Roll 1Certificates of Registration Issued at Detroit, 1815-29 and 1858-66.
2Certificates of Registration Issued at Marquette, 1869 and 1871 Michilimackinac, 1869 and 1871 and Port Huron, 1867-72.
3Master Abstracts of Registers for Great Lakes Ports, 1815-31, 1849, 1855-80, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1894-1910.

M2101, Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Detroit, Michilimackinac, and Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, 1818-1898, and Certificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Detroit, Michigan, 1818-1831 (8 rolls). These records are partially indexed for more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
1Detroit: Certificates of Registration, May 22, 1818-June 16, 1831
Certificates of Enrollment, Aug. 21, 1818-Sept. 22, 1851 (#46)
2 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, Sept. 22, 1851 (#47)-Apr. 12, 1858
3 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, Apr. 13, 1858-Mar. 20, 1861 (#8)
Certificates of Registration, 1858-1861
Certificates of Enrollment, Mar. 20, 1861 (#9)-Apr. 25, 1863 (#65)
Certificate of Registration, 1863 (one)
Certificates of Enrollment, Apr. 25, 1863 (#66)-May 5, 1864 (#99)
4 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, May 5, 1864 (#100)-May 8, 1868
5 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, May 9, 1868-May 28, 1877 (#85)
6 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, May 28, 1877 (#86)-Sept. 22, 1887 (#20)
7 Detroit: Certificates of Enrollment, Oct. 4, 1887 (#21)-June 8, 1898 (#66)
8 Michilimackinac: Certificates of Enrollment, 1831-1863
Sault Sainte Marie: Certificates of Enrollment, 1847-48, 1853-54, 1860, 1863-68

MISSOURI

M1340, Vessel Licenses and Enrollments from the Port of St. Louis, Missouri, 1835-1944. (26 rolls).

RollContents
1 Licenses of Vessels Over 20 Tons
2 Copies of Licenses of Vessels Over 20 Tons
Vols. B52-B57: Jan. 3, 1844 - Dec. 31, 1852
3 Vols. B58-B61: Jan. 10, 1853 - Dec. 2, 1857
4 Vols. B62-B63: Dec. 2, 1857 - Sept. 8, 1862
5 Vols. B64-B66: Sept. 19, 1862 - Dec. 1, 1865
6 Vol. B67: Aug. 3, 1867 - Mar. 17, 1869
7 Vol. B68: Mar. 20, 1869 - Dec. 14, 1870
8 Vol. B69-B70: Dec. 19, 1870 - Sept. 2, 1872
9 Vol. B71-B72: Sept. 4, 1872 - July 23, 1874
10 Vol. B73-B75: July 23, 1874 - June 29, 1876
11 Vol. B76-B78: July 3, 1876 - Nov. 13, 1878
12 Vols. 1-2: Nov. 13, 1878 - June 29, 1886
13 Vols. 3-4: July 1, 1886 - June 25, 1890
14 Vols. 5-6: July 2, 1890 - Oct. 15, 1894
15 Vols. 7-8: Oct. 15, 1894 - Apr. 22, 1899
16 Vols. 9-10: Apr. 25, 1899 - Mar. 14, 1905
17 Vol. 11: Mar. 22, 1905 - Dec. 10, 1907
18Copies of Licenses of Vessels Under 20 Tons:
Vols. 1-2: Sept. 12, 1893 - Apr. 8, 1907
Vols. B80-B81: Jan. 28, 1907 - May 12, 1914
19 Vols. B82-B83: May 12, 1914 - June 22, 1918
20 Vol. B84: July 2, 1918 - May 15, 1931
21 Copies of Licenses of Yachts
Enrollments:
Vols. B90-B92: May 1, 1835 - Dec. 24, 1901
22 Vol. B93: Jan. 2, 1902 - July 7, 1911
23 Combined Certificates of Enrollment and License
24 Accident Reports
25 Report of Vessel Construction, Destruction,
and Legal or Physical Alteration
26 Quarterly Abstracts of the Status of Vessels
Annual Listings of Vessels
Annual Vessel Recapitulations

M2106. Master Abstracts of Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Saint Louis, Missouri, 1846-1870 (1 roll). 35mm.

M1861. Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Buffalo, New York, May 1816-November 1896 (13 rolls).

RollContents
1 Volumes without a letter desigation:
Enrollments: May 26, 1816-June 22, 1831
Index: Aug. 7, 1831-Nov. 14, 1836
Enrollments: Aug. 7, 1831-Nov. 14, 1836
Index: 1837-1857
Enrollments, Vol. A: Apr. 27, 1837-Oct. 17, 1842
2 Enrollments, Vols. B-C: Apr. 27, 1843-Sept. 19, 1850
3 Enrollments, Vols. D-E: Oct. 8, 1850-Aug. 22, 1853
4 Enrollments, Vols. F-G: July 17, 1855-Sept. 26, 1859
5 Enrollments, Vols. H-I: Sept. 28, 1859-Mar. 21, 1864
6 Enrollments, Vols. J-K: Mar. 29, 1864-May 31, 1866
7 Enrollments, Vols. L-M: May 31, 1866-May 3, 1869
8 Enrollments, Vols. N-O: May 3, 1869-July 16, 1872
9 Enrollments, Vols. P-Q-R: July 18, 1872-Apr. 16, 1875
10 Enrollments, Vols. S-T: Apr. 23, 1875-May 12, 1881
11 Enrollments, Vols. U-V: May 16, 1881-Apr. 26, 1887
12 Enrollments, Vols. W-X: Apr. 26, 1887-Mar. 12, 1892
13 Enrollments, Vols. Y-Z: Mar. 19, 1892-Nov. 17, 1896
RollContents
1 1815-1818, 1835, 1842-1855
2 1856-1867
3 1868-May 26, 1870
4 May 27, 1870-June 1873
5 July 1873-June 1899
6 July 1899-June 1911

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the New York-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
1Certificates of Registration Issued at Cape Vincent, 1821 and 1825-30 Genesee, 1820 Niagara District, 1815-30 and Pultneyville, 1827.
2 Certificates of Registraton Issued at Genesee, 1815 and 1818-31 Ogdensburg and Oswego, 1816-17 Ogdensburg, 1819-21, 1825-26, 1828-29 Oswego, 1815-16, 1818-30, 1864 and Sackets Harbor, 1815-31.

M2105. Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Cape Vincent, Dunkirk, French Creek, Genesee, Lewiston, Ogdensburg, Pultneyville, Rochester, Sackets Harbor, and Suspension Bridge (Niagara Falls), New York, 1816-1867 (3 rolls).

RollContents
1Cape Vincent and French Creek: 1826-27, 1829-31, 1835-36, 1838, 1843-1859, 1861-62, 1864-67

Alexandria Bay: 1866 (one)

Dunkirk: 1855-66

Lewiston: 1830-32, 1848-63

Suspension Bridge (Niagara Falls): 1863-67

2 Genesee: 1821-32, 1834-36

Pultneyville: 1841

Rochester: 1849, 1851, 1853-67

Odgensburg: 1838-39, 1843-67

3 Sackets Harbor: 1816-63, 1866-67

NORTH CAROLINA

M1863. Master Abstracts of Registers and Enrollments Issued for Merchant Vessels at North Carolina Ports, January 1815-June 1911 (2 rolls) serves as the finding aid for records reproduced in M2034.

RollContents
1 Abstracts of Registers 1815-1819. Arranged by port, then chronologically. 1820-1830. Arranged by port, then chronologically. 1831-1836, with a few as late as 1838. Arranged by port, then chronologically. 1837-1911. Arranged by year (fiscal year after June 1876), then by port.
2 Abstracts of Enrollments 1815-1911. Arranged by year (fiscal year after June 1876), then by port.

M2034. Certificates of Registration and Enrollment Issued at Beaufort, Edenton, Elizabeth City, New Bern, Ocracoke, Plymouth, Washington, and Wilmington, North Carolina, 1815-1902 (31 rolls). In addition, there is one certificate of enrollment issued at New Bern, North Carolina, in 1809.

RollPort, Type of Certificate, Inclusive Years
1 Beaufort, Registration, 1815, 1817-1822, 1826-1829, 1832-1836, 1838-1841, 1843-1853, 1855-1875, 1877-1879, 1890-1891, and 1894
2 Beaufort, Enrollment, 1816-September 1857
3 Beaufort, Enrollment, September 1857-June 1900
4 Edenton, Registration, 1815-1856, 1858-1861, 1866, 1868-1876, 1878-1879, 1881, and 1893-1895
5 Edenton, Enrollment, 1815-1852
6 Edenton, Enrollment, 1853-1860 and 1867-June 1900
7 Elizabeth City, Registration, 1815-1831
8 Elizabeth City, Registration, 1832-1867
9 Elizabeth City, Enrollment, 1815-1839
10 Elizabeth City, Enrollment, 1840-1852
11 Elizabeth City, Enrollment, 1852-1861, 1866, and 1870
12 New Bern, Registration, 1815-1836
13 New Bern, Registration, 1837-1861, 1865-1894, 1896, 1899-1900, and 1902
14 New Bern, Enrollment, 1809, 1815-1850, including a separate group of steam enrollments at the beginning of 1850
15 New Bern, Enrollment, 1851-1861, 1865-June 1901
16 Ocracoke, Registration, 1816-1844, 1846, 1854-1855, 1858, and 1866
17 Ocracoke, Enrollment, 1815-1837, 1839-1861, and 1865-1866
18 Plymouth, Registration, 1815-1829, 1831-1842, 1852-1861, and 1868
19 Plymouth, Enrollment, 1815-1837, 1846-1861, and 1865-1868
20 Washington, Registration, 1815-1816 and 1818-1843
21 Washington, Registration, 1844-1861, 1865-1868
Wilmington, Registration, 1839 (Nos. 31-38, 40-47, 50-53, and 55-64)
22 Washington, Enrollment, 1815-1845
23 Washington, Enrollment, 1846-1861 and 1865-1867
24 Wilmington, Registration, 1815-1825
25 Wilmington, Registration, 1826-1841
26 Wilmington, Registration, 1842-1851
27 Wilmington, Registration, 1852-1861 and 1865-1872
28 Wilmington, Registration, 1873-June 1892
29 Wilmington, Registration, July 1892-June 1900
30 Wilmington, Enrollment, 1815-1831, 1833-1839, 1841-1843, 1847-1848, 1850, 1852-1861, and 1866-June 1881
31 Wilmington, Enrollment, July 1881-June 1900

NORTH DAKOTA

M1339. Vessel Documentation Records from the Port of Pembina, North Dakota, 1885-1959 (10 rolls).

RollType of record, inclusive years
1 Register of Enrollments and Licenses, Apr. 7, 1902-Mar. 31, 1921. 1 volume.

Arranged by type of document, then chronologically in quarter-year segments, then by type of vessel, and then chronologically. The register indicates the name, number, tonnage, and type of vessel, as well as the number and nature (temporary or permanent) of the document and the reason for the surrender of an old document or the issuance of a new one. The number of vessels outstanding at the end of each quarter is stated, as is the place and date of issuance of surrendered documents. There are only two entries dated after Oct. 20, 1910. The licenses and enrollments to which this register refers have not been located.

Bills of Sale of Vessels Over 20 Tons, June 8, 1885-June 17, 1917. 2 volumes.

Arranged chonologically. These are fair copies of notarized bills of sale. The copies provide the name of the vessel, the names of the parties to the sale, and the purchase price. There are usually details of the circumstances of the sale and of the legal status of the vessel. In, addition, specifications of the vessel's construction, weight and dimensions are usually cited, including the number of decks, masts, cabins and crew members, the material used in the hull, the date and place of the vessel's construction, and the vessel type. A copy of the vessel's certificate of enrollment is included. There are gaps one or more years in these records, and there are no documents dated Sept. 2, 1887 to Oct. 16, 1907.

Mortgages of Vessels Over 20 Tons, Nov. 19, 1900-ca. 1921. 1 volume.

Arranged chronologically. These are fair copies of notarized mortgages. The copies provide the name of the vessel, the names of parties to the mortgage, and the amount of mortgage. There are usually details of the circumstances of the transaction and of the license and enrollment status of the vessel. In addition, specifications of the vessel's construction, weight and dimensions are usually cited, includingthe number of decks, masts, cabins and crew members, the material used in the hull, the date and place of construction, and the vessel type. Insurance stipulations and terms of repayment are noted. A copy of the vessel's certificate of enrollment is included. There is a vessel name index. Only four mortgages are dated later than April 17, 1901.

Licenses of Vessels Under 20 Tons, Apr. 17, 1918-Aug. 30, 1957. 1 volume.

Licenses of Yachts Under 20 Tons. 1 volume.

Arranged chronologically. There is a vessel name index. There are gaps of one year or more in the records, and after 1942 there are only a few licenses. The latest recorded date of a renewal or surrender is Aug. 30, 1957.

Combined Certificates of Enrollment and License, June 26, 1912-June 4, 1948. 2 volumes.

M1862. Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Cleveland, Ohio, April 1829-May 1915 (14 rolls).

RollContents
1 1821 (one), Apr. 1829 - 1846
2 1847 - 1854
3 1855 - 1860
4 1861 - 1865
5 1866 - 1870
6 1871 - June 1876
7 July 1876 - June 1882
8 July 1882- June 1888
9 July 1888 - June 1892
10 July 1892 - June 1895
11 July 1895 - June 1899
12 July 1899 - June 1903
13 July 1903 - June 1911
14 June 1911 - May 1915

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the Ohio-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
1Certificates of Registration Issued at Cleveland, 1815, 1829, 1857-60, 1862, 1864-72 Sandusky District, 1817-20 and 1821-30 and Cuyahoga District, 1815.
2Certificates of Registration Issued at Sandusky, 1859, 1863-69, 1871-72 and Toledo, 1868-72.
3Master Abstracts of Registers for Great Lakes Ports, 1815-31, 1849, 1855-80, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1894-1910.

PENNSYLVANIA

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the Pennsylvania-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
1 Certificates of Registration Issued at Presque Isle District (Erie), 1819.
2 Certificates of Registration Issued at Presque Isle District, 1815-18, 1820, 1827-29, 1866-72.
3 Master Abstracts of Registers for Great Lakes Ports, 1815-31, 1849, 1855-80, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1894-1910.

TEXAS

M1857. Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Galveston, Texas, 1846-1860 and 1865-1870, and Master Abstracts of Enrollments Issued for Merchant Vessels at All Texas Ports, 1846-1860 and 1865-June 1911 (2 rolls).

RollContents
1 Master abstracts of enrollments issued for merchant vessels at all Texas ports, 1846-1860 and 1865-June 1911
A majority of enrollments were issued at Galveston others were issued at Brownsville, Corpus Christie, Eagle Pass, Houston, Indianola, Point (Port) Isabel, La Salle, Lavaca, Port Arthur, Rockport, and Saluria.
2Master abstracts of enrollments issued for merchant vessels at Galveston, Texas, 1846-1860 and 1865-1870

WISCONSIN

M2099, Cetificates of Registration Issued for Merchant Vessels at Great Lakes Ports, 1815-1872, and Related Master Abstracts of Registers, 1815-1910 (3 rolls) includes the Wisconsin-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

RollContents
2 Certificates of Registration Issued at Milwaukee, 1864-65, 1871-72.
3 Master Abstracts of Registers for Great Lakes Ports, 1815-31, 1849, 1855-80, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1894-1910.

M2100, Certificates of Enrollment Issued for Merchant Vessels at Green Bay, Manitowoc, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1851-1868 (1 roll) includes the Wisconsin-related records listed below. For more details, read the free online descriptive pamphlet available in the Microfilm Catalog online.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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