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Peter Crawford

Peter Crawford

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Peter Crawford, MD, PhD

Obesity and cardiovascular disease are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our research focuses on the interplay between intermediary metabolism and these disease processes. Derangements in the processing of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids are central drivers of disease pathogenesis, but the roles of another metabolic fuel class, ketone bodies, are less well understood. We use novel genetic mouse models with engineered deficiencies in ketone body metabolism to study the metabolic shifts that occur in response to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and dynamic environmental challenges. From these models, we have developed new perspectives of how metabolism adapts in obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD/NASH), and cardiomyopathy how these adaptations ultimately prove deleterious, and how innovative and personalized nutritional and pharmacological therapies may mitigate these adverse responses.

We leverage recent advances in stable isotope tracer based NMR and mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics technologies to study metabolism on a systems level, and we also employ established techniques in molecular cell biology and biochemistry to reveal phenotypic shifts at the cellular level. Complex in vivo phenotyping methodologies are strategically aligned with these sophisticated chemical profiling platforms to generate high resolution phenotypic pictures. In addition to our mouse studies, we perform studies in humans to learn how alterations of ketone metabolism and related pathways may serve as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for obesity, diabetes, NAFLD/NASH, heart failure/CHF, and metabolic maladaptations that can occur in any disease state.

Peter Crawford - History

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Despite her substantial advances in law, technology and learning, Rome remained essentially a mil. more Despite her substantial advances in law, technology and learning, Rome remained essentially a militaristic empire that depended on her army for stability. However, even with the blossoming of attention on the Late Roman Empire as a whole in the early years of the 21st century and the special place that the Roman army as a whole holds in the annals of military history, there has yet to be a focused work with the singular aim of looking at Late Roman Recruiting as a subject in itself. This lack of a monograph specifically dedicated to how the Roman Empire recruited men for her armies from its citizenry and allies throughout its later period somewhat belies its importance.

Therefore, my aims were to present Late Roman recruitment in a central role over an extended period of time and its subsequent ramifications for the army and Empire. It was expedient to explore the various types of source material available on the period and the approach to recruiting before Diocletian, which allowed for some comparison between the practices of the Republic, the Principate and the Late Empire and the identifying of any themes, consistent or otherwise - desertion, conscription, volunteering, lack of enthusiasm, avoidance, intentional mutilation etc.

The majority of the work follows a chronological approach from the accession of Diocletian over a united empire to the fall of Rome in the fifth century west and the Arab conquests in the seventh century east, although the potential effects of population, barbarisation and Christianisation were presented in separate thematic sections.

While various factors associated with imperial decline and their effect on the army and recruiting and recurrent themes were highlighted - how Romanisation, barbarisation, Christianisation, pay, and high casualty rates affected enlistment, desertion and privatisation and martial performance, perhaps the biggest 'theme' to emerge from the study was that for all the attempted reforms of Diocletian and the repetitive legislation of various fourth and fifth century emperors, there was very little systematic about the Roman recruiting system.

Crawford Family

Crawford family members and descendants came to be among the most influential figures in the state.

George Walker Crawford was the only Whig governor of Georgia, 1843-1847. He began his term November 8, 1843. Crawford was a Representative from Georgia born in Columbia Country, Ga., December 22, 1798 was graduated from Princeton College in 1820 studied law was admitted to the bar in 1822 and commenced practice in Augusta, Ga. attorney general of the State 1827-1831 member of the State house of representatives 1837-1842 elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Richard W. Habersham and served from January 7, 1843, to March 3, 1843 Governor of Georgia 1843-1847 appointed Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Taylor and served from March 8, 1849, to July 23, 1850 presided over the State secession convention in 1861 died on his estate, "Bel Air," near Augusta, Ga., July 27, 1872 interment in Summerville Cemetery.

History of Crawford, Lowndes County, Mississippi

Crawford was named after a Baptist minister, Rev. Peter Crawford, about 1852. 289   Known as Crawfordsville until 1870 and then Crawfordville until the� when it was changed to Crawford.   The Mobile and Ohio Railroad came though Crawfordsville in 1857.

Above is the home of George William Hairston   buil t in 1909 on Main Street in the town of Crawford.  The photo shows G. W. Hairston , his third wife Ela Tharpe and nurses holding their children Brown and Nicholas .   George's first two wives, Mary Watt Hairston and Virginia Antionette Ervin died in childbirth.  



Crawford, Mississippi Time Line

1821 - The Robinson Road was built in 1821 and went from Jackson to Columbus passing near Crawford.  In Columbus it connected with Andrew Jackson's Military Road that went from Nashville, Tennessee to New Orleans, Louisiana.

1822 - The Robinson Road was made a U.S. Mail route

1830 - Lowndes County created

1832 - Treaty of Pontotoc Creek with Chickasaw Nation, they are relocated to Oklahoma in 1837-1838

1832 - John Dailey operated the Wayside Inn on the Robinson Road

1842 - Post Office opened at Dailey's Cross roads (southwest of Crawford). Postmaster was John A. Dailey.

1850 - Rev. Peter Crawford is Baptist Minister in Lowndes County in the 1850 Census

1852 - Town of Crawfordsville was given it's name

1852 - Crawfordville Male and Female Institutes are incorporated by J. L. Edmonds, James A. Baird, James H. Gilmore, Mitchell Peden, John M. Lowry, John F. Carr, William B. Cavanah, N. F. Scales and P. H. Whitlock on October 21, 1852.

1854 - Town of Crawfordsville was incorporated on January 26, 1854.  The city extended "one-fourth of a mile in all directions, from a point commencing midway in a right line between the present residence of N. F. Scales, and the house now occupied as a Female Institute, by Jesse Nash, in said town."

1857 - J. W. Carr deeded land for railroad in 1857 and later was depot agent

1857 - Mobile and Ohio Railroad went thru Crawford at mile marker 211.12 - Brooksville 206.2, Penns 214.95, Artesia 219.26, Mayhew 224.12

1857 - Eli Crowder is Postmaster of Crawfordville, April 7

1858 - Albert G. Robey is Postmaster of Crawfordsville, Feburary 12

1858 - William Conner is Postmaster of Crawfordville, April 27

1859 - William Huckaby is Postmaster of Crawfordsville, Janauary 14

1859 - Theophilus Harvey is Postmaster of Crawfordville, January 15

1861 - Mississippi secedes from Union on January 9, 1861.  The Confederate States of America formed.
1861 - The Prairie Guards, Company E was formed on February 15, 1861 at Crawfordsville. 

1861 - The Prairie Guard entered Confederate service at Lynchburg, Virginia May 13, 1861.

1862 - Union Army under U.S. Grant advances toward Corinth (north end of railroad line running through Crawford) leading to Battle of Shiloh

1863 - Crawfordsville soldiers killed at Gettysburg:  William A. Allen, John W. Ball, Thomas Carr, George W. Edwards, Pleasant Goolsby, Henry P. Halbert, J. Leander Huckaby, Jonathan T. Jones, Liberty S. Martin, John R. Mimms, Thomas P. Mimms, Fletcher S. Norwood, David C. Wilkins, and Henry M. Wilkins.

1865 - Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865 and Mississippi on May 4, 1865.

1865 - John H. Kennon is Postmaster of Crawfordville, December 11

1866 - Memorial Day founded in Columbus on April 25

1866 - John S. Allen is Postmaster of Crawfordville, May 31

1867 - Joseph D. Gunter is Postmaster of Crawfordville, April 29

1868 - Charles Keier is Postmaster of Crawfordsville, October 19

1870 - Mississippi readmitted to Union

1870 - The "s" was dropped from Crawfordsville, changing the city to Crawfordville

1873 - James Nance was Postmaster 5 Dec 1873-19 Dec 1878  

1879 - The "ville" was deleted from Crawfordville and the city became Crawford

1880 - Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi founded - later became Mississippi State University

1883  - "August 17, Friday night fire destroyed 12 stores and 6 warehouses, loss of $100,000, insurance $16,000" Memphis Daily Appeal 19 Aug 1883 - "On one side of street were B. V. Halbert and Company, Woodin, Jim Nance, Irvin & Hairston, Randall & Smith, Smith & Reeder, Kier & Carr Brothers, N. Scales and Company and on the oppisite side of street, Ferguson, Brooks & Peace, W. P. Wyatt, Lawrence & Hales, Theophilus Harvey."  From The Autobiography of a Little Man. p. 62-63.

1884 - Mississippi Industrial Institute and College for the Education of White Girls was formed in 1884 in Columbus and became the first public women's college in the United States, later named Mississippi State College for Women (MSCW) in 1920 and then Mississippi University for Women (MUW) in 1974

1906 - Railroad Conductor R. H. Harrison of Mobile & Ohio Railroad, was shot and killed

1908 - Battleship USS Mississippi (BB-23) launched 1905 - sold to Greece in 1914 and sunk by Germans in 1941

1909 - Prohibition starts in Mississippi and does not end until 1966, 33 years after the 21st Amendment ending prohibition

1915 - First concrete paved road in Mississippi is part of US-45 in Lee County and is 49 miles long

1917 - Battleship USS Mississippi (BB-41) launched in 1917 and earned eight battle stars in WWII.  She fired the last gun salvo in naval history to be fired by a battleship against another heavy ship

1920 - Women win right to vote

1921 - Crawford Bank was robbed Sunday, 27 Feb 1921.  "YEGGS BREAK IN CRAWFORD BANK -- FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IS ROBBED SUNDAY -- GET VERY LITTLE CASH -- $12,000.00 IN BONDS -- Stolen But Bonds Were Registered -- Robbers Made Their Getaway in Safety -- No Trace of Them Yet. ----- Crawford, Miss., Feb. 28 -- A check up today showed that $12,000 in registered Liberty bonds, $50 in cash and an unknown amount of jewelry was taken by yeggs who blew the door to the safety deposit vault at the Bank of Crawford early yesterday morning, according to A. J. Ervin, cashier at the bank.

Every box in the safety deposit vault was ripped open and looted.  Quantities of silverware and jewelry were found on the floor.  The $12,000 in bonds belonged to E. W. Hairston, a local merchant, and as they are registered, it is not believed that he will suffer the loss.

No effort was made to enter a huge steel safe that contained the bank's funds.

No trace of the yeggs has been found.  Suspicion attaches to four strange men in an automobile who arrived in Crawford late Saturday afternoon, although is is probable that they were merely tourists." 

The Commercial Dispatch, Columbus, Mississippi, Wednesday, March 2, 1921, page 1.    (Yeggs is an old term for burglar or safecracker)
1932 - Mississippi starts a state sales tax of 2%
1933 - Prohibition repealed, but Mississippi stays dry

1956 - The Rebel train south bound leaves Okolona, MS (near Tupelo) at 4:00AM and stopped at Artesia 4:57AM, passing thru Crawford at 5:25 AM and arriving in Meridian at 7:05 AM.  B y rail from Artesia you could go to Tupelo in 57 minutes, to Meridian 1 hour 50 minutes, Mobile 5 hours 40 minutes, Tuscaloosa 2 hours 22 minutes, Montgomery 6 hours 35 minutes.  Trains went between 45 and 59 mph

Peter Crawford - History

is now available by following the link below

'The Story of Gracchus tells the tale of a young Roman boy, brought up in Athens. When his father is recalled to Rome, at the end of the Reign of the Emperor Nero, Marcus, and his father and mother travel from Piraeus (the port of Athens) to Brundisium (in South East Italy) by boat. They newer reach their destination, however, as the boat they are traveling on is attacked by pirates. Marcus' mother and father are cruelly killed, and Marcus is taken, by the pirates, to Cydonia, in Crete, where he is sold as a slave to a slave-dealer called Arion. Arion sells on Marcus to a 'mystery buyer' at a fabulously high price, and after a high speed journey through the night, Marcus and Terentius, - the 'mystery buyer', arrive at a magnificent Villa in Baiae, near Neápolis. It is there that Marcus' adventures begin .

Many Chapters are now available - plus a 'Preface', with information regarding Roman Society of the period,

plus critical articles featuring fictional stories of the period, plus more recent historical novels and recent TV series and movies.

Peter Crawford

As Chief Financial Officer, Peter Crawford leads the treasury and controller functions, financial planning and analysis, investor relations, corporate development and strategy, vendor management, and corporate real estate for Schwab. He was appointed to this position in May 2017.

Crawford was Executive Vice President of Finance prior to becoming Chief Financial Officer. Before assuming that role, he was Senior Vice President and leader of Schwab's asset management client solutions organization. He also led the fixed income group as well as product management and development for all third-party investment product platforms.

Previously, Crawford led product management for Schwab Funds ® , developing and launching Schwab ETFs ® and helping ignite growth across the product line. He also held a variety of leadership positions, including chief of staff to Charles ("Chuck")R. Schwab, overseeing product management of Schwab's cash products, leading the development of several new services, and helping revitalize the "core" client segment.

Before joining Schwab in 2001, Crawford was an engagement manager at McKinsey & Company in the Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Sao Paulo, and Hong Kong offices, and was also a director of business development at [email protected]

Crawford earned a bachelor's degree from Yale University, where he graduated magna cum laude, and a master's degree from the Stanford Graduate School of Business.

Investors should carefully consider information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing.

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The Governess Who Spilled the Queen’s Secrets

She was one of the Royal Family’s most trusted confidantes. She helped bring up a future Queen. Her loyalty and loving care were rewarded with royal favor and even a rent-free home for life.

But in 1950, Marion 𠇌rawfie” Crawford, beloved Scottish governess of Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret and servant of the Royal Family, was expelled from court, kicked out of her house and shunned by the very people she𠆝 loved for decades.

Her crime? Spilling the beans about her former charges. Crawford was the first servant in the royal household ever to cash in on royal secrets𠅊nd she paid the price for her candor.

A trained teacher, Crawford was just 22 years old when she entered the Royal Household. She was hired by the Duchess of York—the future Queen Mother𠅊s a governess for her two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret. Their uncle, Edward, was expected to become king and they were raised accordingly (their father Albert, Duke of York, was second in line to the throne). Crawford’s charges were privately educated, and had little contact with the outside world. Daily life was routinized and quiet.

Princess Elizabeth (center) and her younger sister Princess Margaret of Great Britain play in a miniature automobile while their governess, Marion Crawford, keeps an eye on them.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

Then, everything changed. Edward, now king, fell in love with Wallis Simpson, an American who had been married twice. At the time, it was unheard of for a king to marry a commoner, much less a divorced American. But Edward refused to relent and in 1936, against his family’s wishes, he abdicated in order to marry Simpson. Albert (now George VI) became king, with his oldest daughter, 10-year-old Elizabeth (known fondly as Lilibet), next in line for the throne.

Crawford moved with the family to Buckingham Palace and helped train her charges for their royal roles. But she also worked to make life as normal as possible for the girls. She took them on expeditions outside the palace, formed a Girl Guide troop for royals, and took them shopping at stores like Woolworths.

The royal household was almost obsessively secretive. For members of the Royal Household and their servants, confidentiality was not just expected—it was a kind of unwritten law. As the London Review of Books noted in a review of Crawford’s book, The Little Princesses, “Respect and respectability are what counts.” The public knew little of what happened in the palaces where Lilibet and Margaret grew up, and their mother, now queen, wanted to keep it that way.

This attitude extended into the household, too. Crawford recalled how the family dealt with the enormous strain of World War II by pretending everything was fine no matter what. It was her job to divert the girls, now teenagers, from the many crises and dangers of war and to help them remain calm and prepared for anything. “The royal discretion still held,” she later wrote. “Unpleasant or bothersome matters were never discussed.”

Princess Elizabeth and her sister Princess Margaret accompanied by Miss Marion Crawford leaving the headquarters of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) in London, May 1939. (Credit: Stephenson/Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

As the years dragged on, Crawford became one of the queen’s close confidantes𠅋ut grew trapped in her role as governess. Even after Lilibet was an adult and Margaret was well into her teens, Crawford was expected to stay in the palace and put off her own personal life in favor of her charges. Though she had a long-term boyfriend, she was forbidden to marry until Lilibet did. She only left the household after Lilibet—then 21�me engaged.

In return for her 17 years of loyalty, Crawford was showered with royal gifts. She was made an officer of the Royal Victorian Order, a kind of knighthood given to people who have served the royals with distinction. She was given a generous pension and allowed to live rent-free in a cottage on the grounds of Kensington Palace.

Crawford settled into home life and maintained good relationships with her former charges and the Royal Family. But in 1949, the Ladies’ Home Journal, an American magazine, approached her and asked if she𠆝 write an article about her service with the royals. Ever dutiful, Crawford asked the queen if she𠆝 agree to its publication.

The queen said yes and even got the palace to broker the deal. The idea was that feel-good stories about the family might bolster Anglo-American relations. There was just one condition: Anonymity. The queen insisted that Crawford not attach her name to the publication, and instead connected her with a journalist who could write the stories based on her information.

‘I do feel, most definitely, that you should not write and sign articles about the children, as people in positions of confidence with us must be utterly oyster,’ the queen wrote to Crawford. “I know you understand this, because you have been so wonderfully discreet all the years you were with us.”

It’s unclear what happened next, but when the article was published it noted that Crawford was a source and included details about the former king and Wallis Simpson that the queen found distasteful. Crawford’s tales of her time in the palace were eagerly read by a public hungry for information about royal life and the future Queen Elizabeth.

Though the future Queen Mother had authorized the publication of the article, she was furious. She told other royals that the trusted nanny had “gone off her head.” The next year, Crawford published a book, The Little Princesses, about her life in the palace𠅊nd the queen got her revenge by kicking her out of her house and cutting her out of royal life for good.

According to one reviewer, The Little Princesses is 𠇊 book of such sugary confection…that it seems incredible anyone could be offended.” But for the royal family, it felt like a betrayal. No member of the royal family ever spoke to her again, and her name apparently still is not uttered in palace circles.

The queen’s participation in the article was only revealed once Crawford died in 1998. She stipulated in her will that a box of mementos and letters from the Queen Mother agreeing to the publication of the article be returned to the Royal Family. Only then did the world learn that Crawford, who attempted suicide multiple times after her banishment and was vilified for her loose lips for decades, had protected her bosses until the end.

Peter Crawford - History

Beyond the contest arena there aren't many honours to be had in surfing. Locally, Surfing Australia's Hall of Fame is about as big as it gets. The decision to make Peter Crawford this year's inductee then, is to make a claim about about his importance in our history. For many, 17 years after his death, he will be either unknown or little more than a name on a photograph, yet he was profoundly important in shaping Australian surfing in the 1970s.

In these days of specialisation, it would be hard to find a current figure who is as influential across so many areas. Peter was best known for his photography, but he was also a great surfer, and a great designer. Perhaps the best way to understand his achievement is to see him as a creative force who used his powers of imagination to make real what most could not even dream.

Peter Crawford documented Shane Herring's meteoric rise in the early-nineties. Herring is shown here at Dee Why Point, hallowed ground for both artist and subject.

All those who knew him were aware of that drive and how it interacted with his all consuming passion for surfing. In those days, before reliable surf reports, he would be up hours before dawn if he thought a good swell was coming, and no-one would beat him into the water if it arrived. His performances at Dee Why Point are the stuff of legend. The idea that a kneeboard rider might be performing at a higher level than other surfers might seem strange now, but there was a period, around the mid-seventies, when the evidence was before our eyes, and not just at Dee Why.

Reviewing the available footage now confirms our memories. He was taking off later, travelling faster and getting as deep as anyone. Perhaps most significantly he was hitting short arc top turns out of the lip a decade before they became a standard part of the repertoire. All made possible by his boards. The design was called The Slab, a name far too crude for its sophistication.

No-one in that era took more care with their boards than Peter. Paul Connors at Crozier shaped them to Peter's precise specifications, but a new board was only the beginning of the design process. He would spend hours foiling and shaving his fins and would adjust the rail edges repeatedly. The fin was in a long box so it could be adjusted, an essential feature since he surfed the same board in all conditions.

As important as all this, in terms of his influence, was his constant contact with the elite of that era. By competing in state and national titles his surfing was seen and appreciated by the generation who went on to be the first professionals. Wayne Bartholomew, Michael Peterson, Terry Fitzgerald, Simon Anderson and many others, spent long hours surfing with Peter before their professional peaks.

It is also worth remembering that the culture of the seventies was extremely competitive. The fiercest contests of the era were fought without judges or singlets. The idea of sharing the waves with any degree of equity came along later as the surfing population aged. Certainly, in the creative hot beds of the era, the Gold Coast and Sydney's Northern Beaches, the competition amongst good surfers was unrelenting, and in the midst of that foment, few were as competitive as Peter.

And then there was his photography. Although he used single lens reflex cameras in housings later in his career, many of his most famous shots were taken with a Nikonos. This was a very simple camera without through the lens viewing or even an exposure meter. The standard lens was 35mm, which meant getting as close to the action as possible and that was Peter's forte. His surfing talent translated into an uncanny ability to put himself at precisely the right place at precisely the right moment. For most users the Nikonos was a punt - you pointed and hoped. For Peter, it was a precision instrument.

PC hooking up with MP, Burleigh Heads, 1977

This expertise in the water was backed up with a true photographic eye that informed the rest of his work. He could see the final image before he even lifted the camera. He could pick the peak of the action through a telephoto to a millisecond. Perhaps more importantly his work defines the era of Australian surfing that came just after John Witzig's work. Witzig celebrated free surfing, country soul and that glorious, but naive, innocence of the sixties. Peter documented a very different culture the brash, outspoken and aggressive culture that allowed Australians to dominate competitive surfing for so long.

It was a culture in which drugs played a much uglier role than they had in Witzig's world. Peter's vision was never naive, he never had that luxury. He was a working photographer, that was how he made his living and supported his family. He looked that culture straight in the eye. He lived in that culture. He embraced that culture, his work captured it and it needs to be more widely seen.

Peter was no saint and this is not hagiography. He had his faults. Some probably have cause to remember him with bitterness, but he has been gone a long time now and it is time to look clearly at his considerable achievements. We should choose to remember those, and to remember the bottomless enthusiasm he had for simply going surfing, and how effectively he communicated that to those around him, and to the rest of the surfing world through his images.

Otto Lohmüller

‘Penthesilea 2000 tötet Ganymedes’

“It is most important that art is seen by the people, and not locked away in

places where it cannot be viewed.

Like a violin, which loses its tone from lack of play, the resonance and intent of art dies when hidden from sight.”

Watch the video: Worlds BIGGEST Warhammer 40k Animated Stop Motion Battle Report TERRA REVISITED (July 2022).


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